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speciAL 
coLLecxiiONS 

tDOUQlAS 
LibRAKy 



queeN's UNiveRSiiy 
AT kiNQsroN 

kiNQSTON ONTARIO CANADA 



APPLICATION 



OF 

BARRUEL'S 



MEMOIRS OF JACOBINISM, 



TO THE 



SECRET SOCIETIES 



OF 



IRELAND AND GREAT BRITAIN. 

BY 

THE TRANSLATOR OF THAT WORK. 



Princes and Nations (hall difnppear from the face of the Earth . . . and 
this REVOLUTION ihall be the work of secret societies. 

Wei/tjaupt" t Difcourfefor the Myjicria. 



LONDON: 

Sold byE.BooKER, No. 56, New Bond-Jirttt, 



1798. 



PRICE ONE SHILLIxNTG AND SIXPENCE. 



[CntereD at ;$tationgrii l^aU.] 



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ntiH. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 

jiN Entire Edition of tbeje Memoirs -was fold before the Fourth Volume 
reached the pref: ; a>id the great inconvenience attending the delivery of fe par ad 
volumes induced the TranJIator to defer the ftibiication of the Jecond Edition, untii 
the four Volumes nvere completed. They are now ready for delivery, and may ke- 
kadcfE.BQOKlR, Nc. ^6, New Bond-firret, London' " Price i /. Si. 



■i"he Author liad only publifhed his firft Volume during the life-time of 
that valiant Combatant of French democracy, Mr. Burke; but the work, 
even in that early ftate, entitled the Author to that Gentleman's applaufs, 
as may be feen by the following letter : 
" Sir, 

<♦ I cannot eafily exprefs to you how much I am Inftrufted and dejlghte.i 
by the firft Volume of your Hiflory of Jacobinifm. The whole of the 
wonderful narrative is fupported by documents and proofs with the moft 
juridical regularity and exadnefs. Your reflexions and reafonings are in- 
terfperfed with infinite judgement, and in their raofl proper places, for 
heading the fentiments of the reader, and preventing the force of plaufibls 
•bjeiflions. The tendency of the whole is admirable in every point of 
view, political, religious, and, let me make ufe of the abufed word, 
.philofophical. So far as I can prefume to judge of a French ftyle, the 
/language is of the firft water. I long impatiently for the fecond Volum* j 
fcut the great objedi of my wiflies is, tiiat the work /hould have a great 
•irculation in France, if by any means it can be compafled ; and for that 
end, I fiiould be glad, upon the fcale of a poor individual, to become a 
•liberal fubfcriber. 

« I am as yet in a mlferable ftate ef health ; and If I advance at all, It 
Is very flowly, and with many fallings back. — I forgot to fay, that I have 
fenown myfelf, perfonaUy, five of your principal confpirators ; and I caii 
undertake to fay from my own certain knowledge, that fo far back as the 
year 1773, they were bufy in the plot you have fo well defcribed, and in 
the minner, and on the principle you have fo truly reprefented.— To this 
I can fpeak as a witnefs. I have the honour to be, &c. &c. 

Miiy I, 1797. (Signed) " Ed. Burke.'* 

The Br!t;(h Critic pafled his jud5e.^lcnt on the work when the thrcs 
firll Volumes were publiftied, m the follovving terms : 

" Certain we are, that no book hai. appeared fince the commencement 
of our labours, which was more neceflary to be read, and weighed atten- 
tively, by every perfon of any property, whether hereditary or commer- 
cial ; every pejlpft holding any iimk in fociety ; and every perfon who has 
within him a fpark of zeal, eitlier for the honour of God, or the welfare oi 
UjanWiid." fM^rch 1798, Pag* *92') 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS 

On thd Work entitled Memoirs, illujl rating the 
IViflory of Jacohinifm: 

The Abbe Barruel has divided his Memoirs into three 
different confpir.acies, naturally flowing from each other. 

The firft is, that of the Sophijters of Impiety, confpiring 
againft: their God, and impioufly denoting their hatred of 
Chriil, by (vfCTix'nvf^ to cru/h the wretch \ for thus they 
blafphemoufly ftyle the Saviour of the World. He de- 
fcribes the divers means and arts employed by them in their 
An'tichristian Conspiracy, ftcp by ftep; and tlie 
Chriftian need not dwell on the proofs, when he is inform- 
ed, that, in October, 1798, all places of Chrillian wor- 
fhip were aboliflied at Paris ; and that capital was no 
longer fubdivided into parifhes, but into Wards, each 
having a Tl-w/i/^ dedicated to PAGAN worship, as follows 
— Ift. Ward — The church of St. Philip du Roule is now 
confecrated to Concord, — II. The church of St. Roche 
to Genius. — IIL St. Euflache to Agriculture. — W. St. 
Germain-L'Auxerrois to Gratittule. — V. St. Laurence 
to Old Jge. -—VI. St. Nicolas- in-the-Ficlds to Hymen. 
— VII. St. Merry to Commerce, — VIII. St. Margartt 
to Equality and Liberty. — iX. St. Gervais to 
Toittk, — X. St. Thomas of Aquinas to Peace. -^ XI. 
St. Sulpice to Viciory, — Xil. St. James-du-Haut-?as 
to Benevolence ; — St. Medard to Labour ; — and St. Ste- 
phen-on-the- Mount to f Hal Piety. 

A Chriftian will fhudder at this recital ; but when the 

Abbe, early in 1797, afTerted, that the total fubvcrfrOn of 

Chriftianity was the obje£l cf the Sef^, he was fcarccly 

telieved, and wasfet downasancnthufiaft: he had, rrcvdr- 

* a 2 thdcfs, 



30307^3 



Iv PRELIMINARY 

thelefs, named the chiefs, Voltaire, D'Alembcit, Frederic 
II. Kinor of Pruflia, and Diderot: he had defcribed the 
means employed, and led us from haunt to haunt inhabited 
by the impious pretenders to philofophy, whether at courts 
or petty meetings of female adepts, where every one ranked 
in fcience according to the impiety or blafphemy of his 
difcourfc. 

Thofe leaders that inhabited Paris afTembled, under the 
di region of D'Alembert, at the hotel of a Baron D'Hol- 
bach; there did thefe men begin to confpire againft Mo- 
narchy as they had confpired againft Chriftianityj and from 
that club may be faid to have iffued the Sophifters of Im- 
piety coalefced with thofe of Pvcbellion, forming the ylnti- 
monarch'ical Confpiracy. Le Roy^ the fec;etary of that 
fociety, repentant when he beheld the revolution, thus 
defcribes the club : " The following were our occupations j 
*'• the moft of thofe works which have appeared for a long 
" time paft againft religion, morals, and government, were 
" ours, or thofe of authors devoted to us. They were all 
" compofed by the members, or by the order of the fociety. 
*' Before they were fent to the prefs, they were delivered 
*' in at our office ; there we revifed and correfled them, and 
" added to or curtailed them, according as circumftances 
" required. — We began by printing them on fine or ordi- 
*' nary paper, in fufficient number to pay our expences, and 
" then an immcnfe number on the commoneft paper. Thefe 
** latter we fent, free of coft, or nearly fo, to hawkers and 
*' bookfellers, who were to circulate them among the people 
" at the loweft rate. Such were the means ufed to pervert 
" the people, and bring them to the ftate in which you 
" now behold them. I fhall not behold them long, for I 
** (hall die of grief and remorfej" (Vol. I. p. 335)— and 
he really died a Ihort time after. 

How 



ob:ervations. v 

How different the deportment of Conclorcet^ (alfo a mem- 
ber of that club,) why, in the midfl of all the fanguinary 
fcenes of the revolution, proclaims the fuccefs of thcfe two- 
fold confpirators, faying, " There was a clafs of men 
" which foon formed itfelf In Europe with a view not fo 
" much to difcover and make deep refearch after truth as 
" to diffufe it : whofe chief objc6l was to attack prejudices 
" in the very afylums where the Clergy, the Schools, the 
" Government, and the ancient Corporations had received 
*^ and protedled them ; and made their glory to confift 
" rather in deftroying popular error than in extending the 
" limits of fcience : this though an indire£l method of 
" forwarding its progrefs, was not on that account either 
" lefs dangerous or lefs ufeful. — Jffuming every tone, 
" taking every Jhape^ from the ludicrous to the pathetic, 
" from the moft learned and extenfive compilation to the 
" Novel or the petty Pamphlet of the day, covering truth 
" with a veil, which, fparing the eye that was too weak^ 
" incited the reader by the plcajure of furmiftng it^ infi- 
" dioufly careHing prejudice in order to ftrike it with more 
" certainty and efFciSl; feldom menacing more than one at 
*' a time, and that only in part; fometimes flattering the 
" enemies of Reafon by feeming to afk but for a half tole- 
" ration in Religion or a half Liberty in polity ; refpeSf- 
*> ing Defpqtijm when they impugned religious abfurdities^. 
" and Religion when they attacked tyranny ; combating 
" thefe two pejls in their very principles, though appa- 
" rently inveighing againjl ridiculous and difgujling 
" abufes ; Jlriking at the root of thofe pejliferous trees, 
" whilft they appeared only to tvifli to lop the Jiraggling 
" branches i at one time marking out fuperjiition-, which 
" covers Defpotijm tvith its impenetrable Jhield, to the 
^^ friends of Liberty, as the firji vi^im which they are 
*a 3 " to 



Vl PRELIMINARY 

" to bn?nolate^ the fir Jl link to he cleft afiunder \ at another 
" denouncing it to Defpots as the real enemy of their 
'' pozver^znd frightening them with its hypocritical plots and 
" fansuinary rage ; but indefatigable when they claimed 
" the independence of Reafon and the Liberty of the Prefs 
*' as the right and fafeguard of manlcind j inveighing with 
*' enthufiaftic energy againft the crimes of Fanaticifm and 
*' Tyranny ;— in fine, adopting reafon, toleration.^ and 
*' humanity^ as their fignal and watch-word. 

" Such was the Modern Philofophy. — Its chiefs had 
" the art of efcaping vengeance, though expofed to ha- 
*' tred : of hiding themfelves from perfecution^ though 
" fiifficiently confpicuous to loje nothing of their glory," 
-^{Vol.II. p. 134.) 

The learned Abbe next takes a view of the different 
fyftems and degrees, and even defcribes the trials made of 
their principles, and particularly at Geneva, almoft under 
the dire£lion of Voltaire, the premier chief. 

It was natural that when their confpiracy had gained fo 
much ftrength, thefe felf-created Philofophers fliould feek 
after and coalefce with every other fpecies of confpirator 
that was to be found. An ancient confpiracy againft Chrif- 
tiaiiity and againft Monarchy had been handed down, and 
zealoufly profecuted in the occult Lodges of Mafonry ;* 
tbey were no other than the ancient myfteries of Alanesy 

* Tlie learned Author fays Occult Lodges, as the Free-mafons in gene- 
ral were far from being acquainted with the confpiracies. of the Occult 
Lodges; and indeed many were people not to be tampered with. It might 
be obje£led, that all Lodges were Occult : with regard to the public they 
\ycrc fo; but, bdide the Common Lodges, there exifted others which were 
hidden from the generality of the yroe-mafons. It is thofe which tlie 
Author Ayles Akrieres Looes, and Uwt have been <;alled Oc c l t 
iopGEs io the En|li(h TraAflatipn. 

Of 



OBSER.VATIONS. VU 

of indefinite Equality and Liberty ; and left aflalTins iliould 
be wanting to the Se6t the following is the reception in 
the degree of Knight Kadofch : "In the Lodges of the 
" Knights Kadofch, after all the oaths, ceremonies, and 
" trials, more or lefs terrible, wicked, and impious, 
" three figures are fhovvn to t'ne candidate, reprefenting 
" Clement F, Philippe le Bel, (the two potentates who 
" deftroyed the Knights Templars,) and the Grand 
" Majler of Malta *^ each attired in the attributes of their 
" dignities. The unhappy fanatic is here to fwear eternal 
" hatred and death to thefe three profcribed pcrfons, en- 
*' tailing that hatred and death on their fucceflbrs in their 
" default. He then ftrikes off the three heads, v/hich, as 
" in the degree of Elect, are real when they can be 
*' procured, or filled with blood, if ii(5litious ; this he 
" does, crying out, vengeance! vengeance !^' — (Vol, IV. 
p. 148.) 

This is an awful reflexion for honeft Mafons, who in 
their firft degrees interpret their fecret of Equality and Li- 
berty only as an Equality within the Lodge among each 
other, without any other diftindlion than that of the de- 
grees ; and a Liberty to do good, which, it is to be hoped, 
needs not the moft bloody Oaths of Secrecy to practice. 

But when we come to the third volume, a quite different 
fcene opens itfelf. Here all the myfteries of Illu- 
miuifm are revealed, from the firft conception of it by 

* It might be objefted, tliat the Knights of Malta gained admittance to 
the Lodges juft as other people could. Latterly, it is true, tbey could 9 
bot it was only becaufe the Seft had changed its bauerics, and thought 
proper to make ufe of the fame artifice againft that Order, as it did 
againft the church, by making its adepts become members of the Order; 
witnefs Dolonieu and Bofredor; formerly the crofs of Malta v/as a ba(%e of 
cxeiufion from the Mafonic Lodges. 

*a 4 SpartacuS' 



Vlll PRELIMINARY 

Spartacus-'We'ittizupty to its moft horrid views for the de- 
ftruflion of Religion, of Government of every fpeciesj 
and of all Property without exception. Thefe reforming 
impoftors aflumed the garb of virtue and fcience ; and a 
letter of the founder will delineate his practice of virtue, 
as well as the ufe he would make of fcience. TVei/haupt 
writes to his adept Hertel^ " My honour is in danger, and 
" I am on the eve oflofing that reputation which gave mey^ 
" great an authority OWEK our people. My fifter-in-law 
*' is with child. I have fent her to Munich, to Euripon^ 
" to folicit a marriage licence from Rome: — But ftiould 
" fhe fail, what fhall I do ? — We have already made 
" fever al attempts to dejiroy the child ; ihe was determined 
*' to undeigo all; but Euripon is too timid. Yet I 
" fcarcely fee any other expedient. But could I depend 
" on Baader's fecrecy, (he was a learned phyfician at 
" Munich,) he could be of great ferviceto mej he had 
" promijed me his aid three years ago (a pretty ufe of 
" fcience). Mention it to him if you think proper. — If 
" you could extricate me from this unfortunate ftep, you 
" v/ould reftore me to life, to honor, to reft, and to au- 
" thority''* (t lat is, over his people). He next complains 
to his friend Zwack, and (hows his hypocrify when he 
fays, " What vexes me the moft in all this is, that my 
" authority over our people -will be greatly dimini/hed i 
" that I have expojed a weak fide^ of which they will 
" not fail to advantage thcmfcives zvhcnever I may 
" preach morality^ and exhort them to virtue and 
« modejiyr 

This will be fufEcient to pourtray the founder of the 
Atheijlical Illuminees^ who has, together with Zwack and 
the Baron Knigge, compiled fo aftonifhing and progreflivc 
a code of rebellion, that one would be tempted to pro- 
nounce 



OBSERVATIONS. ' IX 

nounce it fupernatural. The fondcft parent never fo foli- 
citoufly watched his moft beloved child, nor bethought 
himfelf of fo many arts for its prcfervation as this aftonifti- 
ing prototype of rebellion has invented for the perdition of 
Man both in this life and the next. No; Satan, when 
feeking vengeance agalnft his Divine Creator, would have 
been proud to become the pupil ot the modern Spartacus. — 
Singular to fay, the Sophifters of Impiety, fceking to re- 
cruit their ranks, when become the Sophi(ters of Rebellion, 
had flocked to the Mafonic Lodges; and it is through the 
means cf thofe very Lodges alfo that Illuminifm has over- 
whelmed Europe with its curfes. 

The Abbe, after having given every particular of the 
code of Illuminifm, or of the Antisocial Conspiracy, 
proceeds to delineate the hiftorical part of Illuminifm, and 
then applies the triple confpiracy to the French revolution. 
He defcribes the Baron Knigge intriguing at Willemfbad, 
where the Freemafons from all parts of the world had 
aflembled. The Baron prefently gained over about five 
hundred of the brotherhood ; and foon after the Se£b de- 
clares, " Of all the Legitimate Lodges in Germany^ thert 
" is ONLY ONE that has not coalejced with our Superiorst 
" and this Lodge has been obliged to fufpend its labours." 

How formidable is this declaration in the eyes of him who 
has read the code of Illuminifm ! How fimple the means 
of fedudion ! for when Weifhaupt wiflies to make himfelf 
mafter of the Lodges of Poland, he only inftru6ls Zwack 
to make the following propofitions to the Polifli Mafons: 
" I. That they fhould acknowledge but the fir ft three de- 
'- grees. — II. That each Lodge fhould be at liberty to 
" have fuch Superiors, and as many of them, as they 
*' pleafcd. — III. That all Lodges fhould be independent 
" of each other, at leaft as much To as the Lodges of Ger- 

many 



X PRELIMINARY 

" many are of thole of Poland. — IV. That all their union 
** fhall be carried on ^;' ^^^ correspondence tf«^/ visit* 
" of the brethren — If we can but gain that point, we 
*' fhall have fucceeded in all we want; leave the reji to 
« me,'" (Vol. IV, p. 193). And in what light does this 
arch-confpirator view (I will fay) the moft innocent Ma- 
fons ? " Though thefe myfterious afTociations fhould not 
" attain our obje£l, they prepare the way for us; they 
" give a new intereft to the caufe ; they prefent it under 
" points of view hitherto unobferved; they ftimulate 
" the inventive powers and the expedlations of man- 
" kind; they render vien more indifferent as to the 
" interefts of governments ; they bring men of divers 
" nations and religions v/ithin the fame bond of uni- 
" on; they deprive the church and ftate of their able ft 
" and mofi laborious members; they bring men together 
" who would never other wife have known or met 
" each other. By this method alone they undermine 
" the foundations of ftates^ though they really had 
" no fuch proje,^ in view. They throw them together 
" and make them clafh one againll the other. They teach 
** mankind the power and force of union ; they point out 
" to them the imperfeStions of their political conjlitutions^ 
** and that without expofing them to the fufpicions of 
" their enemies, fuch as magiftrates and public govern- 
" ments. They mafk our progrefs, and procure us the 
" fai'ility of incorporating in our plans and of admitting 
" into our Order., ^f^'^'*' ^'^'^ proper trials., the fnofi able 
** men.^ whofe patience., long abufed^ thirjis after the 
•* Grand Ultimatum. By this means they weaken the 
" enemy; and, though they (hould never triumph over 
" him, they will at leaft diminijh the numbers and the 
" %€al of his partisans. In proportion as thefe new af- 

fociations 



OBSERVATIONS. XI 

" fociations or Secret Societies, formed in difFcrent ftatcs, 
*' {hall acquire ftrcngth and prudence, at the expencj of 
*' the former ones (that is, of civil fociety), the latter 
" tnuj} wesken and infenftbly fall"'~'{'Vo\. III. p. 213.) 
— And what is to be the Grand Ultimatum of thcfe Se- 
cret Societies, *' theje fchoohywhich have been in all ages 
*' the archives of Nature and of the Rights of Man ? 
" Thefe fchools Jliall one day retrieve the fail of Human 
" Nature, and princes and nations shall disap- 
" pear from the face of the earth i and that 
" without any violence. — Morality fliall alone produce 
*' this great revolution." But what is to be underftood 
by morality ? He fays, " Nor is true morality any other 
" than the art of teaching men to (hake off their v/ard- 
" fhip, to attain the age of manhood, and thus ta 
" need neither princes nor governments.'' — (Vol. III. 
p. 199.) With refpeft to Property, it is reprefented as 
the bane of Liberty and Equality: As families multiplied, 
" the means of fubfiftence began to fail; the nomade (or 
*' roaming) life ceafed, and Froferty Jlarted into ex~ 
" ifience\ men chofe habitations; agriculture made them 
" intermix. Language became univerhil; living together, 
" one man began to meafure his ftrength with another, 
" and the weaicer were diftinguifhed from the ftronger. 
*' This undoubtedly created the id;.'a of mutual defence, 
*' of one individual governing divers families re-united, 
** and of thus defending their perfons and their fields 
" againft the invafion of an enemy, hut hence Liberty 
" was ruined in its foundation, and Y.QVAh\£Ydifap^ 
«* peared." (Vol. III. p. 175). Thus would the lUumi- 
nees, in defence of Liberty and Equality, wifh to overturn 
every idea of property, and reftorc us naked to the de- 
ferts, there to lead the nomade or javegt^ life. As to the 

*' Menantile 



xii PRELIMINARY 

" Mercantile Tribe" as they choofe to ftyle the commer- 
cial part of the ftate, " confer on it any rank or authority 
*' in the government, and you will have created perhaps 
« the moft formidable, the moft defpotic of all powers." 
They arc reprefented as enjoying the means of creating, 
forefeeing, and fatisfying, wants hence dangerous to Li- 
berty and Equality. — So confident of fuccefs is Wcilhaupt, 
that he exclaims, " All the efforts, therefore, of Princes to 
« flop our progrefs will be fruitlefs ; the fpark may long 
« remain hidden in the afties ; but the day muft come, in 
« which the general flame fhall burft forth." — (Vol. III. 
p. 214.) 

The Abbe has dwelt at full length on every artifice and 
device of the Code, from the regulations for the Novice, 
to thofe of the Alan-king., or Man recognizing no mafter, 
either human or divine, but himfelf. It is fingular to fee 
the art with which even the Novices are prepared for the 
mofl atrocious deeds. "VVe fee them aflenting to the fol- 
lowing obligations : " Can you and itill you look upon 
" the welfare of the Order as your own ?—'Do you., 
" moreover, grant the power of life and death to 
" our Order or Society ? — Do you fuhjeSl yourfelf to a 

" BLIND OBEDIENCE, WITHOUT ANY RESTRICTION 

" WHATEVER ?" This is not all: when preparing fuch 
defperatc confpirators, left tbey fhould b-Jtray their fecret, 
they are queftioned unawares by their Teacher or Infmu- 
ator, even fuddenly awakened cut of their fleep. And 
fuicide was not only encouraged, but dogmatically taught 
in the Order, under the formula of patet exitusj or the 
exit is free; a certain incxprcflible pleafure was faid 
to appertain to fuicide ; and all this is called the diffufion 
of light ! " The mode of diffufmg univerfal light is, 
*' not to proclaim it at once to the world, but, to begin 

" witk 



OBSEfRVATIONS. Xtti 

•' 7uith yonrfe/f; then turn towards your next neighbour ; 
" y<Ju two can enlighten a third and fourth ; let thefe, in 
" the (iune manner, extend and multiply the number of the 
" children of light, until numbers and force fliall throw 
" power into your hands (Vol, 111. p. 196)5 t/jcn ivill you 
" hi' able to bind the hands of your opponents^ to fubjugatt 
" //;c7«, and to Jiijie wickednefs in the embrio'" that is to 
fay, every principle of civil or political fociety. Left Weif- 
haupt's meaning fhould be miftulcen, when writing to two of 
his favourite adepts, he fubjoins tioe following correfponding 
fcale, 



o 



I 1 

JO O A 

. ' 1 „ , ^ , 

BO OB CO O C 

I — ^ — I 1 — ^ — 1 . — ^ — . 



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and explains it to Zwack, " Immediately under me I have 
" two adepts, into whom I infufe my whole fpirit ; each of 
" thefe correfponds with two others, and fo on. By this 
" method, and in the fimpleft way poflible, I can inflame 
" and put in motion thoufands of men at once." — He alfo 
writes to Baader : " I have fent to Zwack a fcale, fhow- 
" ing how on€ may methodically, and v.'ithout much trou- 
" ble, arrange a great multitude of men in the finejl order 
" imaginable — the fpirit of the firft, of the moft ardent, 
*' of the moft profound adept, daily and inceflantly com- 
" municates itfelf to the tv/o J //, by the one to B By 
*' by the other to C C, — B B and C C communicate it 
" to the eight following j thefe to the next fixteen, from 
" thence to the thirty-two, and ..fo downwards — In a 
5 " word, 



xiV ?RELIMINARY 

" word, every man hat his Aid-Major^ by ivhofe means he 
« immediately aSfs on all the others. The tuhole force 
" firji ijfues from the centre^ and then flows back again 
" to it. Each one fubje£ls, as it were to his own perfon^ 
*' two men whom he fcarches to the bottom^ whom he ob- 
*' ferves, difpofes, inflames^ and drills, a« it were, like 
" recruits, that they may hereafter exercife and fire with 
" the whole regiment" — (Vol. HI. p. 409) — It is by 
fuch means, fays the founder of Illuminifm, that orders 
are to he tranfmitted and political operations carried on. 

The learned Abbe alfo defcribes that famous aflociation 
invented by a Doctor Bahrdt, and known under the ap- 
pellation of German Union. This was an union among 
all the bookfellers that could be feduced into the Order of 
the Illuminees, to fupprefs, by every means in their power, 
all works that might lay open the views or impede the 
progrefs of the Se£l. They were alfo to circulate all 
writings, however feditlous, when written by the Se£l: ; 
and at the head of this literary aflociation was Nicolai^ a 

♦ Sudi is the nature of Illuminifm, which the learned Abbe has laid 
open to tlie public ; neverthelefs, a foreigner lately come to this country, 
and who writes a new publication under the title of Mcrcure Britanmquc, 
has (page 541) inferted a paragraph on this work, as fcurrilous as it is 
contemptible. In his rage, he goes fo far as to reprefent Illuminifm as 
<' the umn:eUigibh reveries of a few fedanti of Gerir.ar.y,'''' and which he fup- 
pofes the Abbe does wof underfiand himfelf. Had not this learned work 
already met with the unparalleled approbation of the Englifh nation at 
latge, the few fpecimens here adduced, which are but too intelligible, 
would be fufficient to give the Enelifh reader an idea of the perfpicuify and 
candour of the learned Abbe, efpccially when compared with the abufe 
contained in the above paragraph. — It is with real pleafure I announce 
to my readers, that his Proflian Majefty hasjoft publiflied an Edidt in xiii. 
Articles, fuppreffing thefe fccrt-t focietits. Tl.o Edidt may be feen in Mr. 
Peltier's Paris Pendant 1798, No. CL^X page 115, and will, it is 
to be hoped, find its way into all the public prints of this country. 

powerful 



OBSERVATIONS. XV 

powerful bookfcller at Berlin, who was aided in his lii- 
bours by other adepts in different quarters of Germany. 
The bufmefs of thefe chiefs was much of the fitme nature 
as that of Holbach's club, already dcfcribtjd by Le Roy in 
the foregoing pages. It was aJfo under the direction 6i 
thefe adepts, that R fading Societies were fet on foot, and 
N'nufpapers and Reviews publifhed to calumniate every 
perfon that could not be brought over to their party, and tt> 
fpread their principles. Among the rules for the Regent, 
we read, that " Everv effort muli be made to gain over the 
" author; but ihould all our attempts fail, and we (hould 
" be unable to entice him into the Order, let him he dif" 
" credited by EVERY means pojphle" — (Vol. III. p. 343.) 
—To weaken the veneration of the people for their prin- 
ces, and to afTume no matter- what cloak., provided they did 
but fucceed, is alfo to be found in the inftru^lions of the 
Regent, though the inferior Ledges of Alafonry are de- 
clared to be- the mofi convenient cloaks. The very nature 
of this union fliows the wifdom (I will even fay the nc- 
ceffity), when profecutions are carried on againft incen- 
diary publications, not only to profccute the author, but 
every bookfeller luithout diftinStion who fhall have fold 
fuch publication. Should the Jacobin exclaim againfl 
fuch a propofition, let him learn, that his much admired 
French Directory not only fends the writer of any pub- 
lication that gives umbrage to their ferocious dignity to 
the deferts of Cayenne, but the publifher, the vendor, and 
even the buyer. But infVrudtiojis of a flill more ferious 
nature to every parent are given to the Regent and Pre- 
fect : "Never lofe fight (fay thefe inft:u£lions) of the 
" railitary-fchools, of the academies, printing prcfies, 
** libraries, cathedral chapters, or any puWic eflablifh- 
•* ments that can influence education or government. Let 
8 « our 



XVI PRELIMINARY 

*' our Regents perpetually attend to the various means, 
" and form plans, for making us mafters of all thefe efta- 
*•'- bliiliments." — The Prefect will fpare no pains to 
" gain pofTeflion of the fchools which lie within his dif- 
" tri£l, and alfo of their teachers. He will find means of 
" placing them under the tuition of members of our 
" Order ; for this is the true method of infufing our priir- 
" ciples and of training cur young men." . It is with 
regret I find myfelf compelled to fay, that fcarcely an 
univerfity in the north of Germany has efcaped the plots 
of the Se£l ; and, at Jena, the magiftrates were obliged 
to interfere, the fchclars (many of them not ten years of 
age) having formed one of thofe fecret focieties under the 
name of Amicijis^ and were difcovered to be nothing but 
young lUuminees training up, and nurtured in their abo- 
minable principles under the fecret diredlion of more hard- 
ened feducers. The reports to the Superiors are irrefra- 
gable proofs of their baleful conquefts in fchools and femi- 
naries, though they never loft fight of country schools, 
as one of the fureft means for gaining over the common 
people to their plots. 

When lUuminifm had fpread itfelf throughout Ger- 
many, Italy, Switzerland, and Holland, it was thought 
proper to make an attack on France, which had not hi- 
therto been tampered with, on account of the fiery and 
hafty difpofition of its inhabitants. Mirabeau, who had 
been initiated by ivlauvillon, was the perfon who informed 
the German chiefs that it was now time to fend their 
cmiflarics. Jmel:us~Bode and ^/Ty^r^Z-Bufche were accord- 
ingly fent, and were received at Paris by the Iccret commit- 
tee of the Mafonic Lodge of the Jmis Reunis. They 
fubmitted the code of Illuminifm to the High Council, 
and k was agreed that the degree of Bpopt alone (whence 

I have 



OBSERVATKDNSi XVH 

I hnvc chiefly made my extra«5ls) (houlJ be adopted, but 
IhapeJ out to tlie Mafonic forms. It was received with 
enthufiafm all over France, and French A'lafonry became 
illuminizcd without even having heard of the name of 11- 
lumince, that is to fay, of Atheijihal Illuminees; for 
another fpecies had grown very common in France ; thcfe 
were called Alartinifts, and were the fame Se6l as the 
Swedenborgicin Illuminees. It was againft thefe that Mlra- 
beau wrote his pamphlet on the Illuminees, and really laid 
open all the intrigues and purfuits of that part of them 
which pretended to the powers of ghoft raifing, evoking 
fpirits, and raifing and interrogating the dead. But, with 
regard to the other part of theiii, who were profecuting 
tiic myfteries of Fquality and Liberty, he is filent; and, 
indeed, his objetSl in writing was no other than to miOead 
the generality of the world as to the exiftence of the Athe- 
iftical Se£l. It was becaufe the Swsdenborgians were 
perpetually talking of God and of fpirits, that they were 
llyled Theofophicnl Illuminees, though their myfteries 
lead to as ra.-ik AtheifiTi as thofe of the modern Spartacus, 
only by different means. They had fpread all over Europe^ 
and travelling adepts initiated into the myfteries fuch Ma- 
fons as were judged worthy of them. Fire they repre- 
fented as the principle of all things. A fi^rpent with its 
tail in its mouth was the emblem of the eternity of the 
ivorldy having rieither beginning or end. The ferpent 
alfo, having the property of renovating its fkin, was figu- 
rative of the revolutions of the luiiverfe and of nature; 
a'.id the phcenix, revivifying from its aflies, denotes how 
the univerfe is reproduced, and will continue to be (o^ from 
itfelf. — But this was merely leading the candidate to 
Materialifm : the next point wa<, to obtain the oath 
which ia legular-built ledges took place a« follows: the 
*lp candidate 



XVJU PRELIMINARY 

candidate was led through dark windings into a cavern, 
where the image of death, the mechanifm offpectres, po- 
tions of blood, fepulchral lamps, fiibterraneous voices ; 
every thing, in fhort, that can affright the imagination, 
and fucceffively hurry the candidate from terror to enthu- 
fiafm, is put in action. When the candidate-is worn out 
with fatisue, a voice dictates the following execrable oath 
which is fworn : " I here break all the ties of the ficfh 
" that bind me to father, mother, brothers, fifters, wife, 
*' relations, friends, mi/lrejfes^ kings, chiefs, benefactors ; 
*' in fhort, to every perfon to whom I have promifed faith, 
'* obedience, gratitude, or fervice. I fwear to re\*eal to the 
" new chief whom I acknowledge every thing that I fhalL 
** have feen, done, read, heard, learned, or difcovered 
" and even to feek after and fpy into things that might 
" otherwife efcape my notice. I fwear to revere the j^qua 
*•• Tophana (z moft fubtle poifon) as a certain, prompt, 
" and neccflary means of ridding the earth, by death or 
" ftu-pefaction, of thofe who revile the truth, or feek to 
" wreft it from my hands," After this the reader will 
not be farprized to hear of the Black Liji^ on which were 
infcribed the names of thofe who gave umbrage to th^ 
Sect, and of the Red L'tfi^ or Blzod Lijl \ and when 
once a \)£r{o\\ was entered on that, it was, among the Order, 
held futile to flatter one's felf with the hope of efcaping 
the poi-ions or the afTaflins of the Sect. With fuch oaths 
and fuch means it is eafy to conceive that a coalition 
might take place, as it really did, between thefe two 
fpecies of lUuminees. The Abbe traces all the chiefs 
of the Revolu-rion to the Lodges, and each fpecies of 
adept confpired, according to the pre-eminence of the 
Lodge he belonged to. The Duke of OrL-ans was now 
Grand Mafter of French Mafonry, and held correfpon- 
7 dencc 



OBSERVATIONS. xix 

iencG all over the world. He eftabliflied Lodges in the 
fiiburbs of Paris, into which he introdticed the f )lJicrs 
of the French Guards, and the more dcfpcrate part of the 
rabble; teaching them Equality and Liberty, and thus 
preparing them for the general explcfion which took 
place on the 14th of July, and the fanguinary fcencs that 
v/cre to fucceed. Similar precautions had been taken in 
the provii.cos; and on that fatal day, above a million of 
men appeared in arms, ftarting forth from their lurking 
places. Now the leaders of the Lodges transferred their 
fittings from the Lodges to the Town-halls, while the 
Grand Council (fiift afTuming the name of Club Breton, 
at Verfaille?, in order to be near the National Aflembly) 
adjourned their meetings to a chuch in the Rue St. Honorc 
at Paris, where they took the name of Jacobin's, from 
the monaftai y to wiiich the church beh^nged ; and this 
is the name now very properly given to that compound 
of Rebellion and Athcifm formed of the Snphijlers of Im- 
piety confpiring againft Chriftianity, without diftinflion 
of worfliip, whether Proteftant or Catholic, Anglican or 
Prefbyterian (the objeft of the firft volume); of the So- 
phijlers of Rebellion confpiring againft Monarchy (the 
object of the fecond volume) ; and of the Sophijiers of 
Impiety and Anarchy^ or the Illuminees, confpiring againft 
every religion, natural or revealed, againft every govern- 
ment, againft all civil fociety, and againft all property 
whatever (the objedl of the third and fouith volumes). 

The author, in the latter part of his fourth volume, makes 
tke application of this triple confpiracy to the French Re- 
volution, which was as gradual as the Mafonic degrees. 
The Grand Lodge of Paris begins by a Manifefto to all 
the Mafonic Lodges in the univerfe, to fummon them 
" t9 confederate ts^ethe?- ; to unite their efforts to main- 

*b 2 " tain 



X^ PRELIMINARY 

" tain the revolution; to gain over to it, in all parts, 
^' friends, partizans, and protcilors ; to propagate the 
^* flame, to vivify the fpirit, fo excite zeal and ardor for 
*' /f, IN EVERY STATK, and by every means in their 
" pozver.'' — ■ (Vol. IV. p. 464.) — No fooner was this re- 
ceived, than Thfn Paine s flsrted up in every country, and 
the honours of French citizenfhip were the recompence 
of thefe incendiaries. Firft appear the ConJlitutionaliJ} \^ 
or the French elTay-mafters in conftitutions, dabbling with 
metaphyfical difcuilions on the Rights of Man ; they, to- 
gether with thof^' inen called Monarchijls (through de- 
rifion, probably), disjoir.t the fceptre, pillage the church, 
and then are abandoned by the Se(fl, who no longer want 
the fupport of their feeble talents. On thefe would I 
vviih Englifhmen to refledl;. Thefe were the trumpeters 
on abufcs, inventors of portentous reforms, and were ia 
their ov/n minds to be the perfedlors of the art of go- 
vernment. And what were they in reality? — the tools 
employed by the Sect to break down the facred pale of the 
French Monarchy. But why fliould 1 dwell on this, in a 
country where the laws fo tvell diftinguifh each man's 
guilt ? Does not every Englifhrnan on a jury, when a 
perfon is brought before him on his trial for a burglary, 
knov/ that the heinoufiiefs of the crime attaches to the 
breaking the dwelling, though even the theft fliould not 
be accomplifhed ? Nor would the crime of another band 
of robb.rs, who really ftule from that houfe which the 
former had left open, be fo heinous in the eyes of the law 
as the crime of the former band, though tlie crime of the 
latter is alfo declared capita! by the ftatute law of the land. 

Juft fo do we fee the plundered Church and defencclefs, 
King of France delivered over to the fecond Afl'embly ; that 
is the i?ira of the bloody lOth of Auguft, of the butchering 

September, 



OBSERVATIONS. XXl 

September. This Aflcmbly makes place for a third, when 
hecatombs of pricfts and pontlfFs are fubmerged in the 
ocean ; death hunts them in every (hape : the Monarch, 
his Royal Confort, his Siller, arc dragged to the guillotine 
by the ruthlefs confpirators ! Thus do we fee the plots 
againft the Church and Monarchy accomplifhed ; the plots 
againft pruperty had been profccuted with frightful 
fucccfs. In the firftafl'embly, thofeconfp'rators who now 
call thcmfehes ConJiitutionaliJ} s had annihilated the pro- 
perty of the Clergy. In the next aflembly, that of the 
Nobles was feized, under pretence of emigration, while 
thofe who remained in France were pillaged, under the 
pretence of confifcation. During the third, appear the 
adepts Bruijfart, Robcjpierre^ and the two yuliens-, and 
they write, that the favourable moment is now come to 
extirpate the mercantile aristocracy as well as 
that of the nobles. In their fecret correfpondence, as 
in Weifliaupt's Myfleries, they declare, that Merchantipn 
mujl he crnjhed ', that wherever a large number of rich 
merchar.ts were to he founds there %vere fure to be found 
as many cheats^ and Liberty could not eflabiijb its empire 
there. Accordingly, fpoliations and requifitions have 
robbed the merchants and citizens of their proper ty^ juft 
as the Clergy and Nobility had been robbed before them. 
But this was not the accomplilhment of the Grand Endoi 
the ultimate views of the Sect, which was the obliteration 
of all property whatever. Accordingly Drouet, Babceuf, 
and Langelot appear. Thefe declare, that the French 
Revolution is but the forerunner of a Revolution greater 
by far and much mere folernn., and which will be the laji. 
Then from the nobleman to the cottager all are to be 
ftripped of their property. But, tremendous as is the 
profpe<5lj how fraall, when wc look, back, the fpark firft 

follered 



xxii 'preliminary, 5rc. 

foftered by impiety ! yet how immeiife, how unirerfal, its 
progrefs ! The Palatinate, Belgium, Holland, Spain, Por- 
tugal, Naples, Italy, the Armies of the Princes, Malta, Con- 
ftantinople and the Eaft, Africa, America, Switzerland, 
Sweden, RufTia, Poland, Auftria, Pruffia, have all felt the 
cffeds of it ; and each has its fepatate article in this volume. 

Would to God, that England were not entitled to 
find its place on this black lift ! but the learned author 
has unfortunately traced the agents of lUuminifm even to 
our ihores. We fee Rontgtn fent by the Superiors of 11- 
luminifm ; the boaftings of Zimmerma/i (the projiigate^ to 
diftinguifli him from the great man of Bern); the pere- 
grinations of a Doctor Ibiken and of a Mr. Reginharty 
are but too clear. If, after this, he turns his eyes toward 
Ireland, and toward Scotland; if he reads the Reports of 
the Secret Committees of the Irifli or Engliih Legiflatures ; 
will not every reader be induced to raife his hands to 
Heaven, and return thanks to the all-merciful and power- 
ful God, that has in his goodnefs preferred us from fuch 
iiumberlefs dangers ! 

Thus far has tbe Tranflator attempted to give a faint 
idea of the nature of the Abbe's valuable work, which 
it has been his aim to lay open to fuch of his countrymen 
as may r^ . be fufficiently vcrfed in the French language 
to read it in tne original. The application of the Me- 
moirs of Jacobinifm to thefe Kingdoms, being the object 
of the note fubjoined to the fourth volume of the tranf- 
lation of that work, and it having been thought proper 
to pik5l;fh it fcparatcly, this preliminary fketch has been 
prefixed, that the reader, who, from his worldly occupa- 
tions, may not have time to perule the work at large, may 
not remain entirely unapprized of the univerfal danger, 
and may thus guard againft the arts of SEDUCTiON-»-th.e 
moft powerful weapons of Jacobinifrru 



NOTE 

For the End of Vol. IV. of the Memoirs illujlrating the 
Hijtory of Jacohtnijm. 



On publifliing the Tranflatlon of the Firft Volume of 
thefe Memoirs, I declared that I confidered myfelf as only 
fulfiUing a duty in layingr open fo excellent a work to 
thofe of mv countrymen who were not fufficicntly verfed 
in the French language to read the original. The object 
of the Author throughout has been to fhew the univerfal 
havock and o'efolation with which thefe depredatory Sects 
have threatened all Europe; Mine has been to excFte the 
vigilant attention of my countrymen, left they fall into 
the fnares that are laid to entrap them. This will, I hope, 
be thought a fufficient reafon for the following: more cir- 
cumftantial application to Ireland and Great Britain of 
the dreadful plots that have been detailed in thefe Me- 
moirs. 

IRELAND. 

Ireland, ever fince the year 1782, had prefentcd a per- 
petual fcene of different afl'ociations for different objects. 
The Volunteers had given rife to much debate; the Ro- 
man Catholics had been actively employed in petitioning 
the legiflature for the redrefs of certain grievances under 
which they laboured; and their prayer was at length, 
parcly acceded to. 

The firft appearance, however, of the afTociation to 
which we now allude was in June, 1791. The propofals 
for it arc couch;d in the it-yle and exact terms of the Hie- 

a rophants 



[ 2 ] 

rophantsof Illuminlfm. They recommend the formation 
of an aflbciation, or, as it is ftyled, " a beneficent con- 
*' fplracy" to ferve the people ; r-fTuming " the fecrecy 
" and fomewhat of the ceremonial attached to Freema- 
" fonry." Secrecy is declared to be neceflary to maice 
" The bond of uiiion more cohefivc and the fpirit of union 
" more ardent ; to envelope the plan with ambiguity, to 
" facilitate its. own agency, to confound and terrify its 
" enemies by their ignorance of the defign, extent, and 
*' direction," &c. Its Cerc7nonial is alfo Mafonic in order 
to create enthufiafm. " Let c\'ery member wear (day 
" and night) an amulet round his neck, contaiaing the 
•' great principle which unites the brotherhood, in letters 
*V of gold, on a ribbon, ftripcd with all the original co- 
" lours, and inclofed in a fheath of white filk, to repre- 
" fent the pure union of the mingled rayS, and the aboli- 
" tion of all fuperficial dill:in£tions, all colours, and 
" fhades of difference, for the fake of one illullrious End. 
" Let this arnulet of union, faith, and honour, depen^^ 
" from the neck, and be bound about the body next to the 
" Ikin and clofe to the heart." Mafonic Secrecy, Equar 
lity, and Union, cannot poflibly be better defcribed. 

Its members are to be chofen from among men in the 
prime of life, without diftinciion of religion ; true phi- 
lanthropifts, " who aie not bound down to obedience to 
" that wizard zvorci empire, nor to the fovereignty of 
*' two founding fyllables ;" from among ■ men, in fhort^ 
" who know liberty, who wiih to have it, and who arc 
" determined to live and die t'lec-niQn" ("vivr^ iibn on 
fr.ourir). -I'i i- 

" This aflbciation (at firft called the Irifh Brotlierhood^ 
and afterwards the United Iriflimen) " will have, it is 
" faid, an eye provident and profpective, a reach and 
H « amplitude 



[•3 ] 

*' amplitude of conception comnicnfurate to tlie progref- 
" live diffufion of knowledge ; — it will make the light of 
" philanthropy converge." Its end is declared to be, 
" The rights of men in Ireland -, the greatcft happincfs of 
" the greateft number in this Ifland ; the inljerent and in- 
" defeafible claims of every free nation :" For, " the 
" rights of man arc the rights of God ; and to vindicate 
*' the one is to maintain the other. We mufl: be free, ii) 
" order to ferve him whofe fervice is perfect fi eedom. 

The Hierophnnt next pfoceeds to ftatiq, that " to form 
** sr fummary of the national will and pleafure in points 
" moft intcrefting to national happincfs, and then to put 
*' this doSirine as fpecdily as may b:: into pra6licc, will 
" be the purpofe of this Central Sccietyy or Lcdge^ from 
" which other lodges in the different towns will radiate." 
The diftinclions of rank, of property, and of religious 
perfuafions, are to be abolifhed j but whether any thing 
fliort oi '•'■ great convulfion" can effe6lually and fpeedily 
procure th^ reform propofed, is to be, vi^ith many other 
principles of fedition, the fubjedi of future difcuflion by 
the afTociation. 

The whole body was to meet four times a year, and 
the (regulating) committee once a month. Thcfe meet- 
ings were to be " convivial ; converfationaly not a deba- 
" ting fociety ; and confidential^ the heart open and the 
" door locked." Their external bufinefs to confift, " ift, 
** in publications to propagate their principles and efFedlu- 
*' ate their ends. All papers for this purpufe are to be 
** iandlioned by the committee. — 2dly, Communication 
*' with the different towns to be afriduouHy kept up, and 
*' every exertion ufed to accomplifli a National Conven- 
** lion. — 3dly, Communication with fimilar focieties 
<* abroad, as .the Jacobin Club at Paris, the Revolution 

a 2 " Society 



{ 4 1 

« Society IN EN^fcLANDj the Committee of Reform in 
" Scotland." 

Eulogi'es were to be pronounced .(as in the Ml nerval 
'Schools) " on fuch men' as fliall have deferved well of 
'" their country until death^ whofe works fhouldlive in a 
^ library to be formed by the fociety and dedicated to li- 
*' berty." — " The arlftocracy (poor dupes) were to be 
" made their inftruments." — (Irifl) Report, Jppendlx, 
No. IV.) — Such was the plan on which this afToxriation 
'was to be formed, and it was recommended to the people 
of Belfaft by a Mr. Tone. On the 9th of November, 
1791, the day on which the aflbclation was inftituted at 
Dublin, a fimilar invitation was publifhed by it, and was 
Tinned Napper Tandy. Thus do we find that Liberty, 
Kquality, Secrecy, Union, and the Rights of man, were the 
real objecSls of this aflbciation. It is true that Parliamentary 
Reform and Catholic Emancipation were held out as their 
only objefb ; but it has fince appeared upon oath, that 
Yhefe were only pretexts, and that " the people in Lein- 
" Her, Munfter, and Connaught did not care the value of 
" a pen, or the drop of ink it contained, for Parllamen- 
*•' tar\ Reform or Catholic Emancipation.*^ — [y^ppindix^ 
Xo.XXXI.) 

l^heir Forms and Regulations were alfo Mafonic— 
Xleinb^rs were honorary or ordinary, and admitted be- 
tween twojponforsy who vouched for tiie characters and 
principles x)f the candidates. The fign and word were 
adopted. Funds were produced by admiflion fees, loans, 
and voluntary contributions of the '-'• Arijlocrats** Taxes 
ilio of one penny per month were levied on the indivi- 
duals of the aflbciation, and were generally tranfmitted 
through regular gradations to the High Superiors. Many 
thangts, however, took place on this fubje£t, and latterly 

three-pence 



[ s ] 

ihrcc-pcncc per month was levied. Thefe funds were 
jiot even cntrufted to the Provincial Committees ; buf 
a member of the Executive attended to c^rry aw?y the 
iponies as foon as they vvcre rcceivedvT-.Jt is true, indee^ 
that the Executive accounted to the Provincial CommittCjC 
once every three months. ,. • ,. 

r. -,^,Chairman, or ^lafter, prefided over the Lodges, wbofc 
duty it was to preferve order and diredl debates; he jiad 
the power, of fining rcfrav5tory members to the amount, of 
five (hillings, and even of expelling the member if he conti- 
nued to be pontumacious ; as alfo to erafe fuch members 
as did not attend their duty after they had been ferved 
with a regular notice. Qfficers were appointed, and the 
fecretaries always belonged to a higher, degree.. .TK? ]C0E- 
catenation of the degrees perfedly coincides with Weif- 
baupt's plan, as the following fcale of corr^fpondence (of 
National, Provincial, County, and Baronial Committees, 
emanating front the Individual Societies) will demonftrate. 



N 





1 — 

c 

1 




1 — 

P 

1 










p' 


' 












1 

c 

I 


r" 

C 

1 






■ 1 
C 
f 




r 
B 


B 


^ 


1 

B B 


~1 
B 


B 


B 


B ' 


r" 
B 


B 


h 



HI III HI ill III HI 111 III in III III III 



. When an Individual Society amounted to thirty-fix 
members, it was equally divided by lot. The firft c^h- 
teen drawn by the fecretary vi'ere coiifidered as the fenior 
fociety, the remaining eighteen formed the junior fplit, 
and received its number from the Baronial Committee 
through the medium of the fenior fplit. 

a 3 The 



f 6 ] 

The Baronial Coin'mit'tee was ccimpofed cf the fecrc* 
laries, trea?urers^ ami adelegaf^Trom each individuail fo- 
tiety unBei' ttl^ir ^dfrefUbti. Th'e County and Provincial 
Commiltces weVelo be compofed of the fecretaries, tr-ea- 
fuf er^, affd if dei'e'gate from the Committees immediately 
under them — (Ibid. No. II.) Ireland Was fubdivided into 
its Ybiir Provinces, aiid its tliirty-two Counties; butasfocn 
as tW6 CoUn'ty Committees were formed, the Provincial 
Committee of that province was tobe chbfen. When two 
Provincial Committees "hid been elefled, the National was 
formed' o'f five members from each Pro ViticfeTCx)mmittee. 

No f)err6n whatever' could frientTon'the-riames of com- 
mittee-men : they were not ev^h 'known to thofe who had 
elede^ t'hem m the cafe of the National or E?JciecdtiVc 
Committee, t1ie 'fecretaries of the Provincial that examrned 
the t'allot c^^Y informing the perfohs who had the majo- 
rity of votes, without reporting to the 'Ele£tors. Thus 
was the fociety "entirely goverheci hy unknown Superiors. 

When any queftions were propofed in an inferior fo- 
ciety, and this fociety wiftied to tranfmit them to other 
focieties (either to get information on th"S fubjedl, or for 
any other reafon) it was to fend them to the committee 
under whofe immediate diredlion it might be. 

Strange members were admitted to the meetings (or, as 
they tetm'ed it, " to the honours of the fitting " ) on pro- 
ducing their credentials ; but the fecretaries made no re- 
turns in their prefence. 

A teft was taken by every candidate previous to his 
admifllon, in a feparatc room, in prefence of his two fpon- 
fors and of a member delegated by the Mafter for that 
purpofe. The teft was declared to be « a facial tind fa^ 
cred compdSf" and was in the words following : " I, J. B. 
" do voluntarily declare, that I will pferfevere in endea- 

** vourinG: 



C 7 ] 

** vouring to form a brotherhood of affcclioii among 

** Iriihmcn of every religious fjcrfuafion, and that I will 

*' a]fo perfcvcre in aiy endeavours to obtain aii equal, full, 

" and adequate reprefentation of all the people of Ire- 

*^ land. I do farther declare, that neither hopes nor fears, 

y- rewards nor punilhments, fliall ever induce me, dirc6tl.y 

i" or indirectly, to inform or give evidence againft any 

,** member or members oi this or fimilar focieiics, for any 

-^ atSi or exprellion (>i theirs done, or nvide colledtivcly or 

" individually, in or out of this fociety, in purfuance of 

*' the fpirit of this obligation." — {Ihid. No. 11.) 

Dublin, JBelfaft, and Newry, were now become the 
head- quarters of the new confpiracy. The latter town 
even enjoyed the exclufive privilege of printing the con- 
ftitutions of the aflbciation, till by a decree of the 7th De- 
cember 1796 it was refolved, that they fliould be printed 
in three different parts of the Kingdom for conveniency's 
fake. A delegate was alfo deputed from thence into the 
county of Cavan and the province of Leinfter, where he 
founded a number of focieties. The whole county of 
Antrim was foon in a ferment; its inhabitants were dif- 
fenters, whofe religious tenets bordered on democracy. — 
The ncw-fan?led Rights of Man began to be the fin'ourite 
theme of all the difcontented in Europe ; Paine's Works 
were profufely diftributed among the Iiifh; publications 
of all forts and fizcs were firculated, holding out " /^n?- 
*' ranee as the demon oi difcord — Uniorij as power, wif- 
*' dom, and the road to liberty," and" teaching the ri^ng 
brotherhood " that a more unjiift cohftitution could not 
" be devifed, than that which condemned the natives of a 
** country to perpetual fervitude under the arbitrary db- 
" minion of flaves and ftt-anjrers ; — that the firft and indif- 
* penfable condition 'of the laws in a free ftate is, the aflent 

a 4 " of 



C 8 3 

" of thofe v/hofe obedience they require — that the 
" will of the nation muft be declared. — Away from us 
'** (cries the Hierophant) and from our children thofe 
" puerile antipathies fo unworthy the manhood of nations, 
" which infulate man as well as countries, and drive the 
" citizen back ta the favage." No longer fhall man con- 
fine his attention to fome few fragments of the temple of 
Liberty. In future, " the ample earth is to be its area, 
" and the arch of heaven its dome." — ( Ibid. No. V.) — • 
The means of accomplifliing thefe great things were the 
union of the whole people; and England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, were fimultaneoufly to raife their voice. In fliort, 
the clergy, gentry, and government, were held out as the 
real oppreffors of the people ; and thus were all the prin- 
ciples of anarchy and deftruction of property to be inrufed 
into that fame people. Clubs and meetings were held 
under various denominations ; the Defenders were invited 
to unite and make a common caufe ; and the County Com- 
mittfees were particularly entrufted with the care of making 
an union between the Orange Men and the Catholics, 
through great precaution was to be obferved in fpeaking 
of the latter, left the Proteftants fhould take alarm. Union 
among themfelves and difaffe£lion to government was to 
conftitute their whole ftrength. It was feared that tiie 
Catholic Clergy would impede their fmifter defigiis ; re- 
ports were fpread, " that the titular Bifhops had been 
-" fummoned befoxe the Privy Council, and that they had 
" received a bribe of five hundred guineas ; that they 
" were to fummon all their Priefts, and command them 
*' to do ail in their power to difcover fuch of their flock 
" as were United hifhmen, or had any conneilion with 
" fuch." — (li'id. No. II.) — In thcfe parts where the 
whole population was Catholic, hanu-bills were diftributed, 

purporting 



[ 9 ] 

purporting to be, the Conftitution of the Orange Men, 
-which was death and deftrudtion to every Catholic; for, 
• if the; common people could, bc\oncc ftirred up to nbellion, 
it was eafy to turn their minds againft government as the 
centre of the Orange union (and what great weight muft 
this aflertion have lately acquired, , when that badge was 
worn by pgrfons whofe, duty it isever/to be .above, party 
prejudice!) wiiile, as in the,county of Armagh, which had 
-been the fcene of much ftrife between the contending par- 
tics, the Sed fucceeded in uniting and leaguing them in 
one common caufe. againft thofe 'who were held out as 
the oppreflbrs of the ftate. 

The chain of correfpondence^once perfedly eftablifhed, 
communications were opened with England and Scotland, 
and negociations carried on with the French during the 
laft fix months of 1795; and in April 1796 the outlines 
of a Treaty with France was drawn up by the National 
Committee, and tranfmitted to the French Directory. — 
In the mean time the Sed continued to propagate its 
principles and enroll recruits, and on the 8th of Novem- 
ber all the afl^^ciations received orders to hold themfelves 
in readinefs to rife, and to procu e arms and ammunition, 
as the French were immediately expeSled. 

On the 24th of December the French really did make 
their appearance at P>antry; and, ftrange to fay, they were 
not feconded in their attempts by the people, who uni- 
verfally rofe in the South to oppofe their invaders ; but 
this is accounted for in a ftill more extraordinary manner. 
The Executive had received news, that the French had 
deferred their expedition till fpring ; this circumftance 
threw them " otF their guard, and in confequence ot it 
-" no raeafures were t-ken to prepare the people for the 
" reception of the French army. The- , people were left to 

« thcm^ 



r 10 ] 

*^ themfihes.'* I hope in God that this avowal, rr^de by 
one of their intended Governors, may prove a wholefomc 
lelfon to that fame people, and encourage them to follow 
the loyal and genuine didlateS of their he^ts. — (Ibidem, 
^Na,XXXI.) 

In future, the bufincfs that will chiefly occupy the 
Giwnmittees will be reports on rtien, artns, and money, 
•which latter article appears to have been a fubjecl of great 
-contention. Each degree thought itfelf intitled to dit- 
pofetof at leaft a part of their funds; and fuch had been 
the law originally ; but the High Superiors found it necef- 
Xary to declare, that no Committee below the County 
fliould be empowered to difpofe of the funds. Soon after 
this power was confined to the Provincial, and ultimately 
bne of the Executive Directors always attended at the 
Provincial Committee to carry away with him to the Na- 
tional Committee whatever contributions had been levied 
on the brotherhood. The jealoufy of the brotherhood 
obliged the National Committee at one time to iflue 
a proclamation, declaring that not " one fenny of their 
m9ney bad been expended any other way than that it 
was intended for." The vigilance of Government great- 
ly contributed to augment the expences of the Se6^, 
as many of the members were taken up and brought to 
trial. Thefe were defended at the expence of the bro- 
therhood. A regular Committee for the defence of pri- 
foncrs travelled the circuits ; and the eminent talents of 
Mr. Curran (employed at a great expence) will ever (land 
a voucher that juftice was done the prifoners wherever he 
was prefent. Large fums were fubfcribed by all clafTes, 
and the duped ariftocrats (or, as one of the fecretaries 
ftyles them, the Jrajiorricks) contributed at one fingle 
{ubfcription, in the county of Antrim, 374 1. At the 

fprins: 



[■ " '] 

•fpring aflizes of 1797, held ij; the county of DoWn, ^^ci. 
were expended, and . lafc conveyance hrid been pt'och'ir-U 
'to the prifoners that were cotifined in the jail of tha't 
c'ouhty. This, however, was not the onl> mi^afts of ifli'- 
fence devifcd; for it was given a*? the opinton df a Cbh'nty 
'Cotnmittee, " that if there is any Unitr^d irJflirti'en on rVrt; 
■** Jury that wiH- commit any 6f the prifoners that is cdib- 
** fined for trilHg United Iflflimen^, oitght ^d hfe theih- 
^'£xij}e7ice.^* The cxpcnccs"'^ccaine. fo "hcaVy at'Ienjth, 
from buying amts and fuppdr'fing aWd defending prifoners, 
that a lottery was fet on foot; but what rtJadirWoiUld fuf- 
pe5t (as wa^ really the fafty'ttiaf "fhi« ''mVufiiH? Avas ob- 
jc5led to, 'on the" plea xhax it tncourt^td -the 'immoralrtyhf 
-ihe people? '■' ' '''^ ^^ ^^--^^ w i i >- " n^' VAp v^^^ 
To return to' the new military ofganizatian of 'ihe' SeiS!. 
Tt was ordered, that every Baronial Cdmrtfiittee: flibuM 
form its three individual focietics into a company of one 
htindred men, choofing one captain, two lieutenants, and 
five ferjeants J total 108. The reader has already feen 
how exa<B:ly the correfponding fcale coincided With Weif- 
haupt's Illuminifm ; but when the military formation be- 
gan to take efFeft, and the numbers increafed beyond all 
expeilation, it was deemed neceflary to extend and change 
certain parts of this fcale. Greater danger attending the 
taking of arms, the individual focteties began to fplit as 
foon as their numbers amounted to twelve. Thefe were 
to be near neighbours, the better to watch over each 
other's adtions and to enfure fecrecy. The fecretaries 
alone were to form the higher committees. They were 
the bearers of all orders from the higher to the lower 
degrees ; they reported the progrefs made by, and the views 
of, the Sect, in as much as it was thought neceflary to let 
them iijto the fecret ; for we find that even the County 

Com- 



,[ 12 J 

Committees wete npt in the fecret as to the jiaturc-cf^-tlre 
engagements ^ntered intp with the French. . What un- 
happy deluded people then were the lawer aflpciators, wj^p 
were informed of nothing, but were to be the mere 
agents of rebellion and murder, and were hurried on into 
this abyfs of horrors by a few political libertines, rwho 
grafped at dominion, and wiflied to wadp to the helm ot 
the ftate through the blood of their countrymen ! . Nc- 
verthelcfs,, every pet^y piece of information, th^^t wa« 
tranfmitted to, the L5)jMi^er--(;^gr?es, was %led /? Repo^t^t^^o 
their- ConJlltuents*.-.\..; ■■,,r'^ ; .•of .• .i ?.-.•■•■ v ,.. . i e :. Il 
According to th^^new, fcalej4t.wa:s 9fdained,,- that ^s^ 
Individual..Sochii£SrihovXii,hQ, under.4he.,4ire>^tipri oS r^i)x: 
Baronial Committee -y ten Baronials to one ujuper Ba,v^ 
»za/i and in large towns TEN upper :Baj-oaials tp^ont 
dijiricf. But as foon as a County coiitainefi four ormoip 
Diftrift Cotnmittees, the County Committee was created. 
When committees had been, appointed in twc^ counties, 
the Provincial Committee was fc<rjned , of two delegates 
from each, and the National i Committee (or the Execit- 
tive) of five delegates from- each of. the four Provincial 
Committees, though the National Committee was formed 
as foon as two Provincial Committees had been elected. 
A part of this Executive was ftationary in each province ; 
and it appears that Dublin, Cork, and Galway, were their 
refidence in three provinces ; but witia refpecb to Ulfter, 
it does not appear whether Belfaft, Armagh, or Newry, 
could claim the honour. From this new formation, 
each upper Baronial will be found to contain a regiment. 
(Ibid. XXIV.) 

One Individiral Sociity I 12 Meiv 
Ore Baronial I 10 I 120 
One upper Baronia] | 10 j 100 ( 1200 

The 



r V3 j 

The' captains deified the colo'jiels, and the latter pro* 
>iofcd three pcrfons, one of whom was created adjutant- 
general by the national committee. It may not be in\- 
proper here to remark the care with which thefe higher 
confpirators fought to prcferve their authority in their own 
hands, even in cafe of a revolution ; for when there was a 
queftion afterward of forming a national- ajfcmbly^ it was 
refolvedthat each of the thirty-two counties {hould depute 
one perfon to he added to the executive, rll lower focietieS 
being caft out of the balance, dildbnly to be confidered as 
agents, whd, after having been robbed 'of every moral and 
civil virtue, were to ralfe on high their fanguinary chief;> 
and fe^ucers, glutted with theblftod of their lawful go- 
vernors. 

Here we (ce ti-.e amazing progrefsmade and the great 
power acquired finoe the 9th of November, 1791. Every 
thing now took -5" feTJous and military turn. The ncw- 
elec^ed officers tvere in/h-uSfcd tojludy tables and acquire 
every fpecies of military information with refpedl to roads, 
magazines, mills, &c. Plans were deviCed ror thefupportof 
the wives and children '•^during the exsrtions cf the Bro~ 
" therhood in the field." Every thing that could thwart 
government was difcuffed and refolved. The confumption 
of fpirits v/as prohibited, in order to hurt the excif©; 
bank-notes were cried down; and even the buying of 
■quit-rents was e.\prelTly forbidden. In the mean time the 
High Superiors faw that this armed mob could not be com- 
petent of themfelves to cope with the king's troops ; a means 
A">f debauchir.2: the J.ittcr from their allegiance was there- 
fore contrived. H^ind-bills were privily circulated, hold- 
ing out their officers " as tyrants that had rebelled againft 
.*' tht righti of tnan^ and whofe orders were damnable ;" 
bills, in fliort, of the mofb inflammatory nature were dif- 
. ■... I pQrfed 



^^^!fW?ng the military by the towns-people, who Were 
chargpd.M'ith the feduition of the troops of their garrifon. 
They fwore-in fome few of the foldiers; thefe fwore 
others; and when their number was fufficientj focieties 
were fortned in the regiments. Here again we find the 
Rgn and ivard^ which were changed every month ; the 
catechifni for recognizing a true brother ; and the oath^ 
which was, " to be true to the French republic, and t^ 
" take the life of any man who would attempt to dif- 
•* cover . . . The rule for reckoning on friends among 
^t military was, " that in cafe the perfon fworn is an 
" United Irifhman, and has not taken any aftive ftep^ 
** againft the body or any of its members, out of th( line 
" of his profeffion^ he was to be deemed ftill the Friend of 
" the United Irifhmen."— f/^/W. No. XIV.) •— The bet- 
ter to propagate the fyflem, it was held out to the military, 
^ that when the French fhould come, the foldiers were to 
** be fuch as them ; that there vcere to he no rich^ hut all 
" Equality ; and that there was no ufe in their going 
" againft the French, becaufe when all the Powers were 
** againd them, they could make no hand of them.'.' 
They were alfo tampered with refpedling their p?iy. 
When all this had fufficiently fucceeded, ^ a foldier in 
*' each company was appointed to make a return oi united 
" men in his refpcftive company, while two of the 
" (leadieft men" from each regiment " were employed to 
** carry thefe returns" to the towns-people. Thefe, in 
return, informed them of the progrefs made by the Se(9: in 
Ireland, and of its numbers on-board the Engliflj and 
French fleet ; as alfo of all kinds of news from the lat- 
ter. A plan was fettled, " that upon a fignal given, (and 
" this was fetting fire to a houfe, or feme fuch token,) if 
" it was by day light, the men fhould turn out of the 

" ranks J 



[ 'S ] 

", ranks; and if it was by. night, and it could be (o con- 
" trived, an United Irifhman ihould be (entry at |he-gatc, 
-** who was to fell the barracks j and fuch United Irifh- 
^ men as were within the barracks were to exert thcm- 
" fclvcs in feizing fuch arms and ammunition within a,%. 
" they could get. — If there were but thirty friends in tho 
** barracks, by having them difpcrfed up and dov/n in the 
<f rooms, when the attack was to be made, they could give 
" the arms to the towns-people." If any p^rt of the 
garrifon were not to be depended upon, the cannons feized 
were to be pointed on the barracks, or whole corps were 
to be cut off for refufing to coalelce with them. Some 
of the brotherhood even went fo far as to attempt to fet 
fire to the (lores ; but the burning coals were luckily dif- 
covered by a dragoon. Such was the plan for garrifons 
and towns; the mode of proceeding in camp is exempli- 
fied in that of Bandon: " On the ift of July, 1797, the 
*' country was to be fet on fire on both ends and in thff 
" middle ; and then, with what friends Mr. O'Brien 
" near Bandon could fend them, and what friends they 
•' had in camp, about Four Hundred, they intended firft 
" taking the cannon, and then taking the bell tents, with 
" the fmall arms, which they would give to the country 
" people fent by Mr. O'Brien, and then go put Genera/ 
** Coote and as many officers as they could to death^ and 
" retreat to Bantry, take poffeilion of the battery, and 
" keep it if poflible till the French would land." It appeared 
that at a future time, when a rifing was alfo to have taken 
place, that the foldiers were to put all their officers to deathy 
and the yeomanry alfo if they oppofed them. In return for 
fo fignal a fervicsi, the tov/n of Skibbereen was to be 
given up to the foldiers for pillage during eight hours.-" 
(Uid. XXIX,) — Thus do we fee the gradual progrefs of 

this 



f i6 ] 

this horrid aflbciation toward its cruel and fangui nary ob- 
je<5t — THE GREAT END ! I The Committees in fu- 
ture proceed with the grcateft eagernefs to prepare every 
thing that can involve their country in rebellion and 
bloodflied. After the example of the bloody Marat, and 
according to the true principles of the Seft, a paper en- 
titled the Union Star was publifhed at Belfaft, printed 
only on one fide, fo that it could be pafted on the walls of 
theftretts. Let this paper defcribe itfelf ; " As the Union 
" Star is an official paper (of the Erothcrhocd) the mana- 
" gers promife the public that no charafters fhall be ha- 
" zarded but fuch as arc denounced by authority, as being" 
" the partners and creatures of Pitt and his fanguinary 
" journeyman Luttrell " (that is to far, Lord Carhampton, 
the commander-in-chief). " The Star offers to public 
" juftice the following deteftable traitors, as fpies and 
** perjured informers. Perhaps yo;w(? arm more lucky than 
" the reft may reach their hearts, and free the world from 
" bondage." Then was given a lift of profcriptions, ex- 
a<5Hy fuch as Marat gave when he ftyled himfelf the politi- 
cal calculator^ becaufe, when four men had been torn to 
pieces bv the demoniacs of Paris, he flated, that fubtra£l- 
ing 4 from 30,000 there ftill remained 29,996 afiftocrats 
to fall beneath the national vengeancck Now this official 
writer, in his frantic rage, thus addreffes his Sovereign : 
" Let the indignation of man be raifed againft the im- 
" pious wretch vvho prophanely aftumes the title of reign- 
" ing by the grace of God, and impudently tells the 
"■ world he can do no wrong. — Oh, man ! or rather lefs^ 
" Oh, king ! will the fmothercd groans of my coun- 
** trymen, who in thy name fill the innumerable dun- 
^'' geons you have made, for ajferttng the rights of man, 

« be 



[ '7 ] 

*' he coil fide ;eJ no wrongs ? — Go, impious blafphemsr ! 
" and your hypocritical Ibrccrer?, to the fate Philoso- 
" PHY, Jiiltice, and Liberty configns thee. 'Tis in- 
" evitable, thy impofitions are dcteflcd; thy kind have 
" been brought to juftice. The firft pofTefTor of thy 
" trade has recently bled for the crimes of the craft.— 
" We appeal to thy noble and venerated name, O Bru- 
" tus ! who bravely aflallinated the tyrant of your coun- 
*' try amidfl: his cohorts and in the preience of his pen- 
" fioncd ,fenate." — (XXVII.) — Thcfe are literal ex- 
tracts from this paper ; and no Knight Kadofcb of Mafon- 
ry nor Mav.-klng of Illuminifm could hold mors violent 
language. Another paper, nearly as wild, called The 
P.I ESS, was pubiiihed by Mr. Arthur O'Connor, with a 
fimilar view of inflaming the minds of the people. The 
violence of his ov/n productions may be prefumed from the 
fentence he pafies on all the moft violent papers of Eng- 
land in his letter to his Brother. " We (Burdett and 
*" himfclf) ordered you the Courier ; as to the morning 
" papers they are mere lumber in your office j fo we did 
" not fend you more than the Courier, as in the bufi- 
" nefs of the Prefs we found it ufelefs to have any other.'' 
—'[Trials at Maidjionc.) 

The Committees continued to receive daily reports of 
the motions and determinations of their allies, the French j 
of their friends in England and in Scotland j and of the 
immenfe progrefs that the Seel was making. November, 
1796, they are informed, " that four new Societies are 
" organized in Scotland.^ and that the County of Kerry 
" Militia required one hundred conftitutions for their own 
" ufe." In April, 1797) that "their numbers are im- 
*' menfc in Leinfter, though unacquainted with the fyf- 

b « tens 



[ i8 ] 

** tem of organization. In Ulfter there were 116,844, 
" men organized."* 

In May, a new fcene opens ttfelf, which unfortunately 
flievvs us, that the Iriih Brotherhood were no ftrangers to 
dehberat* afiafunation. Between the hours of eight and 
nine on a Sunday morning, the 7th of May, 1797, a man 
of the nameof James Dunn (a fmith and farrier, who had 
Jbeen in Lord Carhampton's fervice for the fpace of fifteen 
.years, and lived in ahoufe at his lordfliip's park-gate) pre- 
fented himfelf at a Baronial Cojumittee^ held in a public- 
houfe, Strand-ftreet, Dublin. Maurice Dunn, the keep- 
er of the houfe, was his fponfor, and " would engage his 
••' life for him that he was up or Jiralght.'^ Hereupon 
the figns of the Brotherhood were put to him ; and having 
by his anfwers proved that he was a true and accepted 
brother, the chairman took the chair. James Dunn then 
fubmittedto the Society, " that he and a few more friends 
" were thinking of doing out (ihooting) Carhampton, 

* The refolutkins entered into by the united focieties of Donaghadee and 
its vicinity (and leized on the 14th of April, 1797) are too explicit to be 
omitted here. They rcfoived, that " all power is radically in tlie peo- 
*' pie;" that "at ilie prefent criHs the /.vc/^/t hilng united fliould arm, 
** chufe their officers, and take a firft, fecond, and third, requifition of 
" fucli ss are able to go forth to war in difetice of ihdr lights as men ;" 
*.♦ that if any prove hoiljie to liberty, their eftates or property fliall be 
♦> confifcated, and converted to tiie national fund." All enemies to the 
«;3ufe were tbb: tried by a jury, " according to the law then exijllng ;" and 
9 Revolutionary Committee wa? to be eftablilhed. It is true, that this patrio. 
tic zeal was condemned by the Provincial Committee as premature; but i: 
Is to be remembered, that the- High Superiors of t'le Seft feared nothing 
but a premature infurreftionj " for," (aj they, by that means Govern- 
** ment would have it in their power to put us down, never to life, at 
** leaft for a century 5 and iikewife we have paid a great deal of money to 
«' tJie people in gaol, and it will take a large fum of nior.cy to affirt 
*5 tlivm all -wmiKu"' '■^(ud^pcudix, No, IL) 

4r « bccr.ufe 



f 19 ] 

* becaufe he was a great hindrance to nihtteTs ffettin?^ 
" forward." This news electrified the whole committee 
with joy. One exchiimed, " It is great news." " It i& 
" glorious news," cried another : "It is the bed news we 
" have heard yet," faid a third; ahd a fourth declared, 
that " it would do more for the caufe than had ever been 
done before." Dunn then mentioned a narrow part of the 
road leading to Luttrelftown, and a ftone wall from 
whence he might have lijlnp at Lord Carhampton, who he 
faid was damned wary^ and always carried piftols with 
him ; but one good blunderbufs would do as much as ten 
piftols. He then declared that four friends, John Brode- 
rick, Peter Reilly, Patrick Carty, and Ed. Martin, had 
engaged to join him ; on which the committee named 
feven of their members to deliberate on fo important a bu- 
fmefs, and ordered them to meet at feven o'clock the fame 
evening, when Dunn and his companions were to attend. 
The cuftomary oath of fecrecy was taken by all prefent, 
to the number of 17; they then parted, after giving as 
the new word " a good act." At feven in the evening 
the delegated members met, one excepted. The oath of 
fecrecy having been adminiflered to the four friends, they 
were introduced. Thomas Byrne then faid» " I fuppofe 
" thofe zre friends and ge/itlemen ; I fuppofe we all un- 
*' derftand whn.t we are met about?" — " If they were 
" not," anfwered Dunn, *' I would not bring them here." 
— " We know the bufmefs we are met about (fays 
Byrne) ; let us proceed." Various plans were then pro- 
pofed for doing his Lordfhip out. Dunn repeated his ; 
Byrne would have at Icaft a party of mnc mounted; but 
JohnFerra!, with fiuiguinary zeal, infiftcd that every per- 
fon prefent fliould partake of the foul deed ; and his opi- 
nion v.-as adopted. Another refglution propofcd by Byrne 

b 2 then 



[ 20 ] 

thenpafFeti: " that three at leaft: fhould go out diCgiiifed 
" with loofe coats and blunderbufTes ; and the reft, as 
" yeomen cavalry, to be armed with piftols." The plan 
of execution was, that " thofe with blundcrbufles were to 
*' come at the back of the carriage and to fire in ; thofs 
** with the pi-ftols were then to ride on, and fire in at the 
*' windows, left the fire from behind fhould not have 
*' taken efFeiSl ; and as they paficd xhefjoiman and pofiiUlon 
" they were alfo to difpatch them ; they were then to re- 
*' charge their pieces, ride oiv in a body towards Dublin, 
*' and keep together, {o as to fecure their retreat " A new 
oath was then taken, " to be ftaunch and ftead)', and true 
*' to one another in the bufinefs." When the book came 
to John Ferral, he enthufiaftically exclaimed, " If this 
" bufinefs mifies, if provifion be made for my familv, I 
" will undertake to ^o him in the ftceets." Several meet- 
ings were after v/ards held on the fubje(5l; for never 
was a murder more dclibtTatcly planned. Money being 
nccefTary for procuring arms, the chairman of the comnait- 
tee applied to the Baronial Secretary, who referred him to 
the Treafurer ; and the Sunday after (May 14) James 
Dunn and Patrick Carty were arrefted in the Phoenix- 
park. Carty had, together with his father (a Chelfca 
penfioner) been a conftant labourer on Lord Carhampton's 
demefnc, and had a houfe rent-free. The day after the 
arreft Lord Carhampton vifited Dunn in prifon, in the 
hope that he would difcover what was become of the 
three other afiafilns, but he received no fatisfadtory anfwer. 
On his Lordfhip expreifing his furprize that the prifoner 
fliould be capable of fo atrocious a deed, the aflaHin anfwer- 
pd, that " he thought it waS'fl good a£l \ that he had no 
*' perfonal difliketohis Lordfhip, and would never execute 
*S it alone^ but with his party j -that he had never fufFcred 
.5 " any 



[ « ] 

'* any injury from him ; but that he was fwojn to execute 
" it, and if he were out of that (the prifon) he would 
" execute it if he could." As to the murdering the poor 
innocent poftillion, " it was to do the thing completely.** 
After this are we to be furprizcd at the horrid murders 
that have taken place. Lord Carhampton, fome time after 
the arreft of the fon, had an interview with Carty, the 
father, and told him " that if his fon would give exami- 
" nations he was inclined to let him do fo ; and in that 
" cafe he thouo-ht his life might be faved ; and he defined 
" the father would tell the fon fo." " The father faid, he 
" was apprehenfive, that if his fon gave examinations, he 
" zvould be murdered." 1 have dwelt on this example, as 
it was the fubjeci of a trial, in which the Attorney-Ge>» 
neral profecuted for the crown, and four counfel attended 
on the part of the prifoner, Mr. Curran, Mr. M'Nally, 
Mr. Greene, and iMr. Emmett, who had himfelf been a 
member of the Executive Diredory from January till the 
beginning of May. Such able counfel and fo public a 
trial will ever ftamp this as an authentic document. — (See 
Report of the Trials cf Carty and Diinn^ publi/hed by 
Rid^eway.) 

In June, the captains were informed, that the national 
committee had been fitting fifteen days ; but, as only 
10,000 men of the County of Antrim would rife, the bu- 
finefs was retarded. The colonels of the County of 
Dov/n were unanimous for the rifing. In July their hopes 
were buoyed up by an intimation that 75,000 men were 
embarked at the Texel for Ireland ; but thefe were irre- 
parably broken by the igimortal Duncan on the nth of 
Oaober. 

In Auguft they received news, that a number of foci- 
©ties had been formed in North Jmerica^ and that thefe 

b 3 had 



[ 22 1 

had tranfmitted 211 dollars to their Brethren in Ireland. In 
Oclobcr a perfon, juft arrived from Scotland, attended at 
the county meeting, held at Down Patrick, and " /hewed 
" a Scotch conjiitutlon^ which was^ word for word, 
" the fame as the Ir'tfh', only that the words North 
" Britons were put in the place of Irishmen." No- 
vember 14, inquiries were made of the delegates of the 
Province of Ulfter, "whether they thought that they 
" could difarm the military within themfelves ; and they jj 
" all faid that they could, except Armagh." — (Jppendixy j 
No. XIF.) — On the 28th of December, « One confti- 
" tution was voted to a member, to be given to part of 
" ajhip's company lying in Belfaft-Lough, for the propa- 
*' gation of the general principle." At the Provincial 
Meeting for Ulfter, held the ift of February, 1798, it 
was reported, that " three delegates (of whom the unfor- 
" tunate Qiiigley, fmce executed at Maidftone, was one) 
*' had juft arrived from France ; that the French were 
*' going on with the expedition ; and that it was in a 
*' grer.ter ftate of forwardnefs than was expected j but 
" what was moft flattering, was, that three delegates had 
" been fent from the United Britons to the Irijh 
" National Committee ; and that fro?n that very moment 
" they were to confider EnGLAKD, Scotland, andlRE- 
*' land, as one people adling for one common caufe: 
" There were Legiflators now chofen f.om the three 
*' kingdoms to a6l as an executive for the whole." They 
were alfo informed, that Quigley and one Arthur Mac 
Mahon, cf Hollywood, had been the tv/o principal perfons 
'who, during the preceding fum?nir^ had opened the commu- 
nication with the United Britons. (Ibid.) The delegates 
from England brought an addrefs fiom the United Bri- 
tons to the United Irl.Ti. In high flown and patriotic lan- 
guage, 



r 23 ] 

♦uage, the United Britons informed their yellow men, 

that " various political foci^tics had been inftituted for 

" the purpofe of reform. — But they had vaniflied, or 

" difcontinued their exertions. The London Corre- 

" SPONDING tSot/t/}', and other focicties in union with it, 

" had rlfen upon their ruins." — That England was never 

without friends to fubftantial Liberty ; but that the flame of 

Liberty had been for a long time fmothercd, " till the 

*' French revolution again fanned its dying embers into 

" a glow, which, they hoped and trufted, would never be 

" extinguiflied. — Our numbers (fay they) are immenfe, 

*' our influence ftill more confiderable, and our fentiments 

*' accord with yours. Wc are unthinncd by the tyranny 

" of the law or of the fword — Our delegate is entrufted to 

*' lay before you our proceedings." And they conclude 

" With befi: wiflies for the amelioration of the condition of 

" man, and hopes that your exertions and virtues, aided 

*' by an united people, will fpeedily emancipate your 

" country : We remain, in bonds of Brotherhood and 

" Union, 

" Yours fraternally." 

Frltiay, Jan. 5, 179S. 

(Seal,) 

It appears on the evidence of John Hughes (Lords^ 
No. I.) a printer of Belfafl:, that the delegate was a Mr. 
Bonham^ who was accompanied by Citizen Bai/y and the 
younger Binns. The latter, who was introduced to 
Hughes by Quigley, faid that he had dlfliributed moft of 
the printed addreffes, and defired to have an addition 
of them printed. Accordingly a thoufand were printed, 
and three guineas paid for them by a perfon of Belfaft. 

During this month a regular military committee was 
appointed by the Executive, " to confider and digeft fuch 

b 4 "plans, 



[ 24 ] 

<' pUns, and direct the military force in fuch manner, as 
" might be neceflary in cafe of infurredion ; and in cafe 
" of invafion to co-operate with the French." 

On the 27th of February it was reported, that the 
Aflbciation had at that time fourteen delegates in France, 
and that there had been held in London a meeting of all 
the delegates of England and Scotland. In March, the 
brotherhood of the province of Leinfter fuftained a con- 
fiderablc fhock, by the aneft of fome of its leading mem- 
bers ; but on the 25th of the fame month it appears, that 
*' the Provincial Committee of Leinfter had perfedly re- 
" covered from the {hock ; they (the delegates of Leinfter) 
" were only four days from the time they were taken before 
'* they had the whole province in a complete ftate of orga- 
*' nization s the Government had alfo taken three of the 
*' Executive, but there were three appointed in their place 
*' the very evening after they were taken." How truly does 
this demonftrate Weiftiaupt's aficrtion, that when he once 
has properly organized his bands, he will bid defiance to all 
his opponents. 

Another principle of that prototype of rebellion had, 
unfortunately, been too v.'ell underftood by the founders 
of the Irilb brotherhood, and that was to make them- 
felves mafters of the education of youth. A4any fchool- 
mafters (as I have been credibly informed) have Ihown 
their.ftlves extremely adtive in the whole courfe of this 
unfortunate affair. The very firft man who was tried 
and executed in Ireland, for fwearing-in the deluded Irifti 
io he true to the French^ was a fchool-mafter called Lau- 
rence 0*Connor. — The following are extracts frcm his 
papers, and proved on his trial : " I, J. B. do fwear in 
" the preftnce of Almighty God, that / will be true to 
" the prcfent United States of France and Ireland^ and 

" evevi 



C 25 J 

"■' every other Kingdom in Chrijiianity^ without its being. 
" hurtful to foul or body, as long as they piove fu to me, 
" And that I will not come as evidence pgaihll any of mjr 
*' brethren or committees, in any court or place whatfo- 
" ever, excepting in court-martial, under penalty of being 
" excluded, or death ivithout mercy-— ' hW brothers to live 
" lovingly and harmonioufly, and quarrcllous to be ex- 
" eluded, as the Committee thinks proper," 

" Thefe articles are according to the Foreign United 
" States of France and Ireland, by order of our committee 
« of L. G. No. 16." 

A fecond paper was in thefe words : " The hearer^ A. B. 
" was initiated into our fublime degree of L. L.L. by mc 
« CD." 

There were alfo found on the prifoner three regular 
certificates, one of Free JUafons^ a fecond of Royal Jrchj 
and a third of Knights Templars^ fhowing that O'Con- 
nor was of thefe Orders. One of the Counfcl attempted 
to explain away the oath, reprefenting it as " the mere 
rhapfody of a warm imagination, ufed to excrcife itfelf on 
Mafonic myfteries ; " he reprefented to the jurv, that *' it 
would be a cruel verdi(51: indeed that would convi6l a man 
of high treafon, merelv for uftng a few cabalijlical tvords- 
and fymbols." I will venture to affirm, that fliould the 
learned counfel ever chance to perufe the Mejnoirs of 
yacobinifm^ he will have a clearer infight into the Caufe 
he had to defend, than when at Naas at the adjournment 
of the fummer affizes in 1795. — (See his Trial.) 

What a melancholy fcene did the feat of fclencc 
(I mean the Univerfity of Dublin) prefcnt, when on the 
19th, 20th, and 2iil of April, 1798, it appeared on the 
cleareft evidence that a body of United Irifhmen had or- 
ganized themfelvcs witbi/i the walls of the College ! had 

confulted 



[ 26 3 

confulfed about providing themfelves v/ith arms, and ha5 
eleded officers ! Nineteen ftudents were expelled, and 
feme other perfons cenfured. — (Fifitation held by Lord 
Clare,) 

In the mean time open rebellion continued its progrefs ; 
and on the ift of April it is reported to a committee, that 
a letter had been received " from Bartholomew Teeling " 
(executed in September 179S, being taken in arms with 
the French in their invafion at Killala) " who was one 
**• of the delegates in France, ftating, that the French 
" troops would moft certainly be on board by the middle 
"• of this month. The troops from Brcft and that neigh- 
" bourhood were determined to try to evade the Britifli 
" fleet, and to land in Ireland; of courfe the Britifh fleet 
«* would follow them; and while thus drawn oft^, all the 
" other troops embarked at other ports would make a 
" defcent on England. Whatever might rcfult from this 
" attempt, it was the fixed determination of the National 
" Committee, in cafe the French fhould be fruftrated,, 
" that the brotherhood fl:ould of thevifelves make a rifing, 
*' The citizens of Dublin, it was fuppofed, with the af- 
*' fldance of tlie arniy, csuld feize the capital at any 
" moment." Unfortunately, the principles of the Seel 
had made fuch a progrefs, that as early as February the 
returns declared the numbeis of the brotherhood to amount 
in Ulfter to 110,990, in Munfter to 100,634, and in 
Leinfler to 68,272; and out of 8,coo military in Dublin 
alone, it was ftated that 3,800 would acl againft Govern- 
ment. 1 he Executive proceeded to carry their determin- 
ation into execution. Dublin, Chapd-izod, the camp and 
the government, were to be feized on at one and the 
fame time ; and the fignal was to be given to the whole 
country, by the burning of the mail coaches. But, in 

order 



[ 27 ] 

order to get pofTeinon of the camp at Lchaunftown, the 
Meflrs. Sheares applied to Captain Annftrong, who, true 
to his duty (and happily for his country), hiid open the 
whole of the plan to his ccynmanding officer, at whofe ex- 
prefs defire he continued to commune with the confpira- 
tors. He was queftioned by them as to the ftrong and 
weak fides of the camp ; and a Mr. Lawlefs (a furgeon), 
with the natural humanity of the Se<Sl, obferved, that " the 
trees on the right of the camp would be very convenient for 
hanging people." At length it was agreed, between the 
Meflrs. Sheares (John was a member of the Executive) 
and Captain Armllrong, that the latter fhould " erciSl a 
" ftandard upon the night to be fixed upon for the attack 
" upon the camp, which was to be joined by all whom 
" he had previoufly known to be United Iriftimen; that 
" no perfon zvcis to be fpared ; and tiiey were not to be 
" given the option of joining at the time of the attack." 

The camp once carried, and Dublin fallen into the 
hands of the confpirators, we may judge of the ufe they 
meant to make of their victory, by the foil-owing pafTages 
of a proclamation found in the pofieflion of Mr. Henry 
Sheares, and in the hand-writing of John Sheares, the 
member of the Executive: 

" Irifhmen ! your country is free, and you are about 
*' to be avenged. That vile government, which has fo 
" long and fo cruelly oppreiTed you, is no more. Some of 
" its moji atrocious monjiers have already paid the for- 
" feit of their lives-y and the reji are in our hands. — 
" Arife then, United Sons of Ireland ! Rife like a great 
*' and powerful people, determined to be free or die ! — 
" Arm yourfelvcs by every means in your power, and 
" rujh like lions on your foes — In the caufe of Liberty, 
" inadion is cov/ardice, and the coward fia II forfeit tht 

" property 



[ f8 ] 

" properiy he has not the courage to protect : let his arms 
*' be feized, and transferred to thofe gallant fpirits who 
" want and will ufe them. Yes, Iriflimen, we fwear by 
" that eternal jujlicc^ in whofe caufs you fight, that the 
" brave patnot who furvives the prefent glorious ftruggle, 
" and the fan:!ily of him who has fallen or fliall fall here- 
" after in it, fhall receive from the hands of a grateful 
*"' nation an ample recompenfe out of that property which 
" the crimes of our enemies have forfeited into its hands. 
" But we Ukcivife Jivear^ to punijh robbery with death 
" and infamy ! ! ! 

" As for thofe degenerate wretches v/ho turn their 
" fwords againft their native country, the national ven~ 
" geance awaits them : let them find no quarter^ unless 
" they ftiall prove their repentance by fpeedily defert- 
" ing. — &c. &c. 

" Many military feel the love of liberty glow within 
* their breafts, and have joined the national ftandard. 
" Receive with open arms fuch as fhall follow fo glorious 
*"* an example. But for the wretch who turns his fword 
" againft his native country, let the national vengeance 
" be vijited on him, let him find na quarter." — (Trial of 
Mejfrs. Sheares.) 

The foregoing is more than fufficlent to fhow the na- 
ture of this aflbciation. My oh]e6k has not been to write 
the hiftory of the late rebellion, but merely to fhow that 
its ohje^j end, and means, v/ere entirely fimilar to that of 
the infernal Se6ts defcribed in the Memoirs that have juft 
been laid before the Englifh reader. May my countrymen 
profit of this av/ful example in Ireland, and guard againft 
the infidious progrefs of that Se6t iji Great Britain ! 



GREAT 



{ 29 .] 



CJREAT BRITAIK. 

When wc turn cur eyes toward Great Britain, ?.{!«>■ 
ciitions of a fimilr.r tcndcixy nppear j under a great di- 
verfity of names indeed, but all aiSluatcd by a Tmidar 
rpirit. Their firft objecl was, to captivate the minds of 
the people by means of " lectures delivered on political 
" fubjedis, calculated by their very extravagance to catch 
" the attention of the audience ; and in the courfe of 
" them every topic was employed that could inflame their 
" minds, alienate them from the laws rnd conftitution of 
*' their country, and habituate them to principles of fe- 
*' dition and rebellion. The moft violent publication* 
'* to the fame tftect were ftcrctly but generally circulated 
" in hand-bills, both in the metropolis and in the remote 
" parts of the country. Every point that could QXZ'.te 
" difcontent, according to the purfuits, interells, or pre^ 
" judices, of different clafl'es, has been fucceflively dwelt 
" on, and always in i'uch a manner as to connect it with 
** the le;uiing defign. Tli£ attempt to accoraplifh tliis 
f End has appeared in the fhape even of play-bills aiui, 
*' fongs ; feditious toafts, and a fludied felection of the 
" tunes which have been myft in ufc in France fince the 
" Revolution, have been applied to the fame purpofe, of 
" endeavouring to rendpr deliberate incitements to every 
*' fpecies of treafpn familiar to the minds cf the people."— 
(Eng. 2d Report, p. 20 J "i— " //; th( fame manner (fay 
" the confpirators) that a farmer may be roufed by the 
" mention of tlthesy the Jhoemaken may by the exceffve 
^ dearnefi of leather^ the inn-keeper by the numerous and 
*' unnecejfary fianding army^ and ALL by a temperate 
" and difpaffunate relation of the immenfe number of ft^ 

" necurf 



[ 30 3 

" necure places and ufelefi offices^ in which the corrupt 
" and proftitute favourites, agents, &c. of the Rich and 
" Great riot in the fpoils and plunder wrefted from the 
" hufbandman, mechanic, &c. — (Ap. C. p. 28J 

The aflbciation that took the lead was, the Society 

FOR CON'STITUTIONAL INFORMATION, whicK on the 

23d of M^rch, 1791, voted thanks to Thomas Paine for 
his work on the Rights of Man. — {Ibid. 11.) Other 
focieties, fuch as thofc of Sheffield, Manchefter, hz. pafTed 
'fimilar votes, for his having demonftrated the rights of 
man In a manner fo clear atzd convincing. In May, 1792, 
this fociety refoived, that a corrimunication fhould be 
opened with the 'Jacobin Cliih of Paris \ and an addrefs 
to that club was tranfmitted, figned by the chairman. An 
addrefs was alfo voted to the National Convention on the 
9th of November, 1792, in confequence of the attack of 
the loth of Auguft en the Frcrxh A4onarch, ftyling the 
Convention " fervants of the fovereign people^ and he- 
** nefa^fors of mankind. The benefits (they {\\y) will in 
** part be ours^ but the glory will be all your own ; and 
" it is the reward of your perfevcrance ; it is the prize 
.« of virtue."— f/i/c-^. 24.; 

Another aflbciation, calling Itfelf the London Cor- 
responding Society, was inftituted in January, 1792. 
It immediately formed a clofe connection with the Society 
for Conflitutional Information; on the 12th OcSlober, 
J 792, it framed an addrefs to the French Convention ; the 
deputies wiio prefented it, " after pointing out their wifhes 
" to efFedl in this country a revolution fimilar to that 
" made in France, confider the example of France as 
" having made revolutions eafy ; adding, that it would not 
" be extraordinary, if in a fhort fpace of time the French 
" fliould fend addrdTgs of con^raUilaxion to;i National Con- 

*' vention 



[ 31 ] 

" ventton of England ; and the prcfident in his anfwer fays, 
" the moment^ v/ithout doubt, approaches when the French 
" will bring congratulations to the 'Rational Convention 
« of Great Bntaiti." — (Ibid. 2$.) The fraternal cm- 
brace and the honours of the fitting were the natural 
recompenfe of fuch patriotic declamation. The fangulnary 
Barrcrc, St. Andre, and the infolent Roland, were de- 
clared honorary member^, and the fpeeches of the two 
former on the trial -of Louis XVI. were entered on the 
books of the faciety. 

Various focieties were now formed Ift different parts of 
England, all corrcfponding with thofe in London, as their 
centre. Reform in parliament, univerfal fuffrage, and annual 
ele<fiions, were the obje<5ts held out to the over-credulous. 
Soon we find the London S/iciety for x:oKSTiTVTiotiAL 
Information and the London Correspondixg So- 
ciety in clofe connexion with, and aftually di retting, 
fimilar focieties at Hertford; at Cambridge; in 
Norfolk, at N'orivich ; at Leicester ; in War- 
wickshire, at Coventry and Birmingka?n ', at Not- 
tingham; in Derbyshire at Derby znd Be/per ; in 
Cheshire, r.t Stsckpcrt; in Lancashire, at Liverpool 
and Manchejier-y jn Yorkshire, in the Weft-Riding, 
at Sheffield, Leeds, Bradford, Hallifax, Huddersfield^ and 
Wakefield; in Northumberland, at Newcajile upon 
Xyne, &c. Aflfociations were alfo formed at Bristol. 
With refpeft to Scotland, Edinburgh appesrs to have 
teen the central point for that country, ccrrefponding 
with London. In the interior of Scotland, and under its 
direction, we find many towns, fuch as Leith, Dundee, 
Perth, Stirling, Kiifyth, KerkintuJloch, Glafgoiv (which 
alfo correfponded with London) Pa: fey, Strcthaven, Dal- 
keith, &c. Tbc fame rules cf prcc?"ding, and for fab- 
dividing 



[ 32 ] 

tllviding the focieties, are to be traced again. But nothing 
can better iilufcrate the nature of thefe aflbclations than 
■that of Sheffield. 

This afTociation, they tell us (Appendix D.) themfelves, 
" originated in an aflembly of /i'^ or fix mechayiics^ who 
« by their meeting at fomc one of their houfes, and con- 
" verftng about the enorfjioiis high price of provifwns ; the 
" grofs abufes this nation labours under from the un- 
" bounded authority of the MonopoHfers o^ all rznks^ from 
" the KIKG to the peasant; the wafte and lavifli of the 
" public property by placemen, penfioners, luxury, and 
" debauchery, fources of the greivous burthens under 
" which the nation groans; together with the mock re- 
•^ prcfentation of the people ; — thefe being the fubjecls 
" of their converfation, they concluded^ that nothing but 
" DARKNESS and IGNORANCE in the people could fuffer 
" the rights of every freeman to be thus violated" 
They then invited their neighbours to deliberate on this 
patriotic difcovery; they reprinted an edition of 1600 
copies of Paine^s Rights of Man^ and fold it at fixpence, 
to enlighten their fellow-countrymen. They ilyle them- 
felves the Society for Conftitutional Information, write 
up to London, on the 15th of January, 1792, to requeft 
the favour " of forming a connection with all the like 
" focieties in England, and efpccially v/ith thofe or fome 
" of them in London, the Thatched-houfe, the London- 
" taven?, or others, and humbly folicit their advice and 
" afTiftance in the accomplifhing thereof, /« order to form 
" our refolves fimilar to theirs \ becaufe, as we are adua- 
*' ted by the same caufe and principle^ and all our in- 
" tercfts being one^ czir fentiments ought and mufl be the 
" faine." In about four months after, they inform the 
London Society, that " not only their large and populous 

" town, 



[ 33 ] 

•* town, but the whole neighbourhood for many ?n'i!cs rounJ 
" about, h:ive an attentive eye upon them ; and that moft 
•* of the towns and villages were forming thcmfelves into 
" fimilar ajfociations^ Jlri^ily copying after us.'* They 
alfo declare their obje<5l to be, "a radical reform of 
" the Country as foon as prudence and difcretlon would 
" permit, and eftablifhed on that fyftem which is confir- 
" tent with the rights of man.''' They requeft that cer- 
tain members of their afTociation may be admitted to the 
London meeting, which now becomes the regulating com- 
mittee, that " a more clofe connection might be formed 
" and communication be maintained,'' for the extenfion of 
** ufefiil knowledge from town to 'village^ and from village 
*' to town, until the whole nation be fufficiently enligh- 
" ten ed znd united in the fame caufe, which cannot fail of 
** being the cafe wherever the moft excellent works of 
" Thomas Paine find reception." Should any perfon 
wifh to be convinced, that all thefc, as well as the Irifli 
focieties, were formed on Weifhaupt's correfponding fcale, 
let him attend to the improvement which the Sheffield 
people were about to adopt at the end of the 4th month, 
and after this offspring of the difcontented mecl'.anics had 
correfponded with London: " It is certainly (they fay) 
" the beft way of managing large bodies, as in great and 
" populous towns J viz. dividing them into fmall bodies 
" or meetings of ten perfons each, and thofe ten to ap- 
** point a delegate. Ten of thefe delegates form another 
" meeting, and fo on, delegating from one to another, 
*' till at laft they are reduced to a proper number for ron- 
*' ftituting the Committee or Grand Council." After 
this, it is really ufelefs to trouble my reader v/ith any 
thing more on the nature or principles of the focieties of 
Great Britain. We find fubfcrlptioni carried on for the 

c defencs 



r u 3 

defence of the profecutlon commenced againHr Thorns^ 
Paine. The Scotch Societies agree with thofe of Eng^- 
land to hold a Convention, which, though not general from 
England, met in Odcbcr, 1793. — (Appendix F.) — A 
letter was there read from the four united focieties of Ire- 
land. Citizens Hamilton Rowan and Simon Butler attended 
from Dublin, hut were not delegated -, however, the latter 
made a report to the convention on the ftatg of Ireland. 
Margaroty a London delegate, faid, " The focieties in 
" London are very numerous, though fomewhat fluctua- 
" ting. In fome parts of England whole towns are re- 
" formers ; Sheffield and its environs have 50,000. — 
** In Norv/ich there are 30 focieties in one. — If u^ could 
" get a convention of England and Scotland called, we 
" might reprefent JJx or feven hundred thoufand males^ 
*' which is a majority of all the adults in the kingdom ; 
*' and miniitry would not dare to refufe us our rights." 
They had held fourteen fittings, when the magiftratcs 
thought proper to put a ftop to it and arreft fome of the 
members; others aped the conduvSt of the //^rj etat at 
\'^erfailles, when ordered to difperfe, and adjourned from 
place to place ; happily, however, they did not fucceed. 
All their forms, and even their modes of fpeech, were 
fervilely copied from the French. After the numerous 
adherents that they had fsduced, it is natural to think, that 
the teachers of the Sedt thought it ime to bind the mon^ 
Jiers v.'ho dared oppofe them ; to effeiftuate this, pikes 
were forged in difterent parts of Great Britain. " A 
" plan (writes the fecrctary of the Sheffield fociety, in 
" April, 1794) has been formed for carrying into effect 
" this ncceirary bufintfs (of arming). Pike-blades are 
" made with hoops for the (hafts to fit the top ends ; the 
" bottom end of the fnafts fhould be about an inch thick- 
" er, and fir is recommended for the fhafts, feleded by 
7 " perfons 



r 35 ] 

** perfons who are judges of wood. The blades and 
" hoops will be fold at the rate of one flliiling, properly 
" tempered and polifhed. The money feiit with the or- 
" ders." — (2d Rtport, p. 2.) -^ 77;<f fecretary of the 
Corrcjpondlng Society gave direflions -where the piket 
might be procured (page 5)} thofc who could procure 
mufkets learned tlie ufc of thcm,exerciringby caiidle-lighi^ 
or under pretext of loyal aflbciations } that which alTumcd 
the name of Loyal Lambeth would admit none but thofj 
who were members of the Correfpcndir.g Society, or who 
promif.d to become foj nor had this armed allociation 
been authorifcd by government. Meanwhile Scotland had 
made fuch progrefs, that the brethren there not only began to 
arm with pikes, but alfo turned their minds toward-S a6ting ! 
The plot was fortunately difcovereJ. A flieriff's officer 
went to fearch the houfeof a Al-'. JVatty for fome goods 
which were fuppofed to have been f.cretcd, as belonging 
to a bankrupt of the name of Nielfon^ and who has fince 
commenced preacher in England, in this fearch he found 
fome pikes j and in a fecond (made in the fame week, on 
the 15th oi May, 1794) many more were difcovered in 
a clofct. This gave rife to inquiries, and it was found 
that no Icfs than 4000 pikes had been ordered for Perth, 
befide thofe wanted for Edinburgh. It was farther difco- 
veredj that this JP'att was a member of the Committee of 
Ways and Means delegated from the remnants of the 
convention; that he had in this committee read a plan 
" For feizing on the Lord Juftice Clerk, the Lords of 
" ScHion, and the Lord Provoft. A fire was to be light- 
" ed at the Excife, and when the foldicrs were coming 
" down the people were to fall on them and feize the 
" Banks." As foon as this had fucceeded, a proclama- 
tion w.'S to be iilued, "Defiring all farmers not to remove 

c 2 " their 



[ 36 ] 

" their grain under pain of death, and all gentlemen not 
" to go three miles from their houfes." This grand 
plan was communicated to the Societies by means of tra- 
velling adepts, who had a certificate authorizing them to 
call at the Societies. It was not figned, but feals v/erc 
attached to the commiflion. The plan executed, and the 
" ArifiOcrats Jeized^* couriers were to be fent to the 
country with the news. In IVatth houfe were alfo found 
the types of the hand-bill contained in Appendix A. No. i. 
and dated Dundee, April I2, 1794) which was diftrlbuted 
among the Fencibles, to ftir them up to revolt. The 
manner of diftributing them is v/orthy of remark, as being 
common to England as well as to Scotland. Down'ie^ who 
was alfo a member of the Committee of Ways and 
Means, and who was convi6led with TVatt^ after giving 
fome to a perfon who was to diftribute them, " defired 
" him to throw the parcel on the floor ; and if any body 
*' afked him where he got it, he might fay he found it." 
A fhort time after, thefe hand-bills found their way to 
the foldiers in garrifon at Dalkeith. — (See the Trials of 
JVatt and DowntCy in Auguji and September ^ 1794'/^ 

On the 1 2th of April, 1797, England witneffed the 
awful fight of its fleet in open infurre£lion. Here, as on 
land, we find oaths of fecrecy and of union, delegates, 
and accord of fyflem pervading the whole mutiny. At 
Portfmouth it was happily quelled, in a great degree, by 
the 20th of April j fome ilraggUng fliips would indeed 
Ihow f)Tnptoms of revolt, from time to time, both there 
and at Plymouth : at length the great mutiny at the Nore 
broke out on the \ith of May^ and was not fupprefled till 
the month of June. Many of the mutineers were brought 
to trial ; and Parker, their leader, v/as hanged on the 30th 
«f June. No authentic document appeared on theP^ trials, 
■6 indecd> 



[ 37 ] 

indeed, that could conncdl this mutiny with the fecret 
focieties on land ; but, If we look to dates, it will be 
evident that the Carre/ponding Society did not view this 
infurre<Slion of the fleet with an inditFerent eye. I here 
allude to the papers that appeared on the trial of a man 
of the name of Feilowes^ who had been a journeyman 
carpenter before he took to the patriotic line ; he was 
tried at Maidftone on the 13th of March, 1798 (his 
trial having been deferred at his own requeft) and fen- 
tenccd to two years imprifonment. The account of the 
tranfaclion given by the prifoner, as appeared in evidence, 
is as follows: " That he lodged at a Mr. Wratten's 
" houfe in Maidftone ; that a parcel came there on the 
" iSth of May ^ I'-iCfi (the fleet in full mutiny) directed 
" to Mr. Wratten, by a Charing-crofs coach. The wife 
" opened the parcel ; and, as Mr. Wratten was from home, 
" he (Fellowes) told the wife, that the papers it con- 
" tained belonged to one of the focieties; there was to 
" be a meeting, he told her, on that night at the Rofe 
*■' and Crotvn ; that he v/ould carry them there, and take 
" the fenfe of the meeting. He accordingly did fo ; read 
" one of them, and none of the fociety made any ob- 
" jecllon. He then laid them on the table, and the 
" members of the fociety helped the?nfelves as they thought 
" proper " (or, perhaps, found them, as was the cafe 
v/ith the hand-bills in Scotland). Some of the bills were 
carried from this meeting to anotht^r divifion ot the fo- 
ciety, fitting at the Cajlle Inn, under the pretence of 
knowing whether they were legal ; but, whether legal or 
not, they were diftributcd before morning among the fcJ- 
diersthcn at Maidftone. The paper began thus : — " To 
** the Britifh Army: — Comrades, are we not men ? Is it 
" not high time we ihould prove we know ourfelves to 

C3 "be 



[ 38 3 

<* be Tuch ? Arc we any where rcfpcc^led as men, and 
" why are we not ? Have not wrong notions of difci- 
" plinc led us to our prefent defpifed condition ? Is there 
" a man among us who does not wifh to defend his 
" country, and who would not willingly do it without 
" being fubjeft to the infolence and cruelty of effeminate 
" puppies ? IFere not THE Sailors (at that time in 
*' full iiifurrcfiion), like us,, mocked for want of thought^ 
*' though not fu much defpifed for poverty as we are ? 
" Have they not proved that they CAN THINK and ACT 
<* for themfehes^ and prcferve every ufeful point of dif- 
" cipline full as wJl, or better than when under the 
" tyranny of their officers ? " Then comes a heap of de- 
c];imation ggainft the ofHcrrs-, againfl; Parliament, againft 
barracks (a terrible grievance, as it guards the foldiers 
from falling an eafy prey to the difconteiited), and on the 
fyltem of clothing ; the Addrefs then proceeds ; '^ Thefe 
*' are a i^yN of our grievances, and but a few ; what fliall 
*' we do ? 1 he tyranny of what is falfely called difcipline 
" prevents us from ailing like other men. We cannot 
** even give in a petition for that which common honefly 
" would freely have given us long ago. We have oyily 
*' t%vo choices^ cither to fubmit to the prefent impofitic-ns, 
" or demand the treatment proper for men. 77;,? poiver is 
" all our oicn. The regiments which fend you this are 
" willing to do their part." (Can the Correfponding So- 
ciety here denominate themfelves regiments, in confe- 
quence of their pike-bufinefs ?) ^' They can fhow their 
" count rynaen they can be foldiers without being fiavesy 
'* and will make their demands as foon as they know you 

" will NOT DRAW THE TRIGGER AGAINST THEM. 

" Of this we will judge v/hen we know you have dif- 
" tributed this bill, not only among your comrades, but 

« to 



C 39 ] 

" to every foldier xvhom you hiozu in every part cf 
" t/jc' country — Be fober — Ue ready." The whole of this 
inal took pbce in prefence of fevcrnl of the members of 
the Correfponding Society of Maidftone j ar.d after the 
fentence of two years imprifonment was pafl'ed on Fel- 
lowes, and that he was taking from the bar, fome of his 
friends confolcd him by faying, " Two years ! that is a 
*' long while j but Buonaparte will be here before that." 
However, this vapouring Cameleon is little to be dread- 
ed by Britons. 

Hand-bills of the fame nature were difperfcd among 
the army in other parts, and particularly in London ; but, 
like true foldiers, they only anfwered by offering rewards 
(colleifled from their pay) for the difcovery of the mif- 
ereants who had conceived fo mean an opinion of them as 
to think they could be feduced from their duty. A par- 
eel of hand-bills, in the very terms here mentioned, was 
thrown int^ the ftablcs of the Second Regiment of Horfe 
Guards, between the hours of one and three in the morn- 
ing, but was treated with the contempt it deferved. The 
diftrlbution of fuch hand-bills, and the proof adduced at 
Maidftone, will caufe much kfs furprize, when it is 
known, that " the d^jfign of endeavouring to feduce the 
" army from their duty had been jhe frequent fubjecfl of 
** converfation among fome members of the Correfpond- 
" ing Society i it even appears, that a projcdl v.'as repeat- 
" edly agitated among them, of ftriking a fudden blow, 
" and beginning by fecuring the Royal Family and the 
" Members of both Houfes of Parliament, with the hope 
*' (as it was exprefl'ed) that the arn.y^ being ivithotit 
** leaders.^ would no longer cppofe their attempti." — 
^2d Report, p. ly.j 

c 4 The 



C 40 ] 

The Irifli fyftem was now fully adopted in Scotland; 
as on the 21ft Odlober, 1797, a perfon jufl: arrived from 
Scotland brought a Scotch Conftitution to 3 Counry 
Meeting at Down Patrick, " which was word for word 
*' the fame as that of the Irifh, only the words United 
" North-Britons were fubftituted for United Irish- 
*■' MEN." — (Iri/h Appendix^ No. XIV.)— -kn^ on the 5th 
of January, 1798, The United Britons fend the addrefs 
already mentioned in the account of Ireland, declaring 
that *' The Society of the Friends of the People and that 
" for Conjiitutional Information had difcontinued their 
" exertions ; that the London Correjponding Society, and 
*' other focieties in union with it, had arifen upon their 
" ruins." — (Ibid.) — The delegates who carried it in- 
formed the National Committee of Ireland, that " Eng- 
" land, Scotland, and Ireland, were in future to be con- 
^' fidered as one people, acling for one common caufe; 
^' that legijlators were now chofen from the three king~ 
*' doms^ to a£f as an Executive for THE whole." — 
Whither does this information naturally lead us ? Surely 
to that paper which gave rife to the famous trial at 
Maidftone of Q^iigley, Binns, O'Connor, &c. ? It began 
thus : " The Secret Committee of England to the Exe^ 
" cutive Directory of France — Health and Fraternity — ? 
*' the 6th of Pluviofe (or January 25, exaclly tv/enty days 
" after the addrefs to Ireland). Citizen Directors— 
*' we are called together, on the wing of the moment, to 
" communicate to you our fentiments; the citizen who 
*' now prefcnts them to you, and who was the bearer of 
*' them before, having but a few hours to remain in town, 
" expedl not a laboured addrefs from us ; but plainnefs is 
•^ the great charaderiftic of republicans. 

^* Affairs 



[ 41 ] 

" Affairs are now drawing to a great and awful crifis \ 
" tyranny, rnakea to its bafis, leems about to be buried 
" in its own ruins. IVith the tyranny of England that of 
*' all Europe muft fall. Hade then, Great Nation, pour 
*' forth thy gigantic force ! Let the lafe defpot feci thine 
♦' avenging ftroke, and let one opprefTcd nation carol forth 
" the praifes of France at the altar of liberty. 

" We faw with rapture your proclamations '^ they met 
*' cur warmeft.wilheSj and removed doubts from the minds 
" of millions. Go on! Englijhmen will be ready to fecond 
" your efforts III " What fpurious breed o^ Englifhmcn 
are thefe ? What race cf Engliflimen have fuffcred them- 
felves to be led away by fuch bafe-born cowards? Is it in 
the life- time of a Howe, a Hood, a Bridport, a St. Vin- 
cent, a Duncan, or a Nelfon, that thev dare invite thcfe 
enemies of the human race to come and pillage this flou- 
rifhino" country ? Are the fans culottes then to lord It in 
London ftreets, bearing on pikes in fanguinary triumph 
the heads of the beH: men of England, with the hideous 
yells of Equality and Liberty ? Vainly (hall fuch fyco- 
phants, in the hope of partaking of the general pillage 
and of defpniling their fellow-countrymen (for, from the 
king to the peafant, all are declared monopolizers) fpread 
the terror of French arms and the impoflibility of refift-r 
ino- them. No ; far from us be fuch teachers and fuch 
leaders, who only beguile the unheedy to lead them to 
beggaiv, wretchednefs, or the gallows. Englishmen 
arte loyal.^ manly^ and brave ; and when once they (ball 
have unmafked thefe infidious brethren, they need never 
doubt of vidlory. But to return to the addrefs: — The 
nation is reprefented to be on the eve of bankruptcy ; a;* 
jnaking great progrefs in democracy; and as placing little 



[ 42 ] 

confidence in the leaders of oppofition (at Icaft fuch was 
the explanation of that pafTage given by the Counfel for 
Mr. O'Connor). It then proceeds : — 

" Already have the Englifh fraternized with the Irifh 
" and the Scots; and a delegate from each novo fits 
*' with us. The facred flame of liberty is rekindled, the 
" holy ohllgatlon of brotherhood is received with en^ 
*' thufiafm. Even in the Fleets and Armies it makes 
**> fome progrefs. Disaffection prevails in both, and 
** United Britain burns to break her chains." 

I had forgotten to fpeak of a circumftance relating to 
the fleets. Engliihmen have viewed with horror the fcene 
of the Hermione frigate, whofe crew rofe on their officers, 
murdered them, and carried the fb.ip into an enemy's port. 
They have fcen many other plots laid (but fortunately 
difcovered) to murder the officers and give up the fhips to 
the enemy. Looking back to the oath adminiftered to the 
military in Ireland, " to be true to the French," and the 
plans agreed upon " to murder their officers and deliver 
the arms up to the towns-people," the reader will not be 
fo much at a lofs to judge whence fuch atrocious plots 
could arife, ox\j\i?Xthe progrefs of the brotherhood 
in the fleets can mean. God forbid, that I Ihould men- 
tion this with any idea of reproach to thofe gallant men 
who have fince fo glorioufly obliterated every (lain that 
could have attached to their condudl during the mutiny. 
They faw with regret that they had fallen vidtims to 
fcduclion, and they glorioufly revenged themfelves on the 
enemies of their country. They have counteracted the 
atrocious plans of the confpiring Brotherhood; and when 
I mentioned the mutiny, it was only to remind them, th^c 
crafty fcducers could perchance furprize their natural 
hojiefly, 

It 



C 43 ] 

It continues: " United as we arc, we only wait with 
" impatience to fee the Hero Of Italy, and the brave 
" veterans of the Great Nation. Myriads will hail their 
" arrival with (houts of joy ; they will foon finifh the 
*' glorious campaigii ! Tyranny wtli vanijh from the 
♦' face of the earthy and^ crowned with laurels^ the in^ 
♦' vincible army of France zuill return to its native 
" country^ there long to enjoy the well-earned praife of 
" a grateful worlds whofe freedom they have purchafed 
" with their blood." (L. S.) 

Did fycophai'its ever beg more earneftly for the plunder 
and devaftation of their fellow-countrymen ; for they 
could no lon2;er plead ignorance of the views of the 
French ? Colonel Tate had made his defcent on the 
coaft of Wales the 22d of February, 1797, and his in- 
ftrudions, figned by Hoche, * the faithlefs conqueror of 
Quiberon, ordered him " to execute a coup de main on 
" Briftol ; " for its dcftrudion was " of the very laft 
*' importance, and every poflible effort ftiould be m:ide to 
♦' accomplifh it," on account of its riches and commerce. 



• Thefc inftrudions were much cavilled at by thofe papers that arc 
ever founding the praifes of the French Revolution j and even fo late a& 
the 3 1 ft of Odlobtr, 1798, the Coup.ier boldly declares them to be 9 
cluir.fy fabrication of the minifterial writers. The Englifh nntion at large 
liould know :hat thofe inftru£tions were never doubted of by any well 
informed perfon, from the firil feizurc ot them by Lord Cawdor in Feb. 
1797 ; that they were depofitcd at the Secretary of State's office ; that tiiey 
are alluded to in the report made the 9th of May, 1798, by the Houft of 
Commons Q/i the (refitment of prifoners of rv.ir, and are publiflied in the 
Appendix f^. No. XC.) to that report. When the reader is intormcd tiial 
an office is eftabiifhed, Rue du Bacq, for the delivery of the Courier at 
Paris, that it is ftrongly recommended by a creature of the Dire£lory, in 
jjne of their perioi^icai papers, while ail other Hnjiifh papers, but one, are 
profcribcd, his furprize wiii ceafe, as it is i.at'jral to exped that r:'.iie re- 
turn muft be made to the Dirediory by the e^litorof this paper for fo niark- 
fd a favpur, though it were at the «xpencc of truih- 

The 



[ 44 ] 

The troops were to be landed by night " within five 
" miles of the town, in the greatcft filence, and, being 
" fupplied v/ith combuilible matter, were to advance ra- 
" pidly in the da:k, on that fide of Briftol which might 
*' be to windward, and immediately fet fire to that quar- 
" tcr. If the enterprize be conduoled (they fay) with 
" dexterity, it cannot fail to produce the total ruin of 
•' the town, the port, the docks, and the vefTels, and to 
•' ftrike terror and amazement into the very heart of the 
*' capital of England." Let the Inhabitants of Briftol 
now call on thofe infidious brethren who dare commune 
with them, and afk them. Whether they alfo approve of 
this invitation of the brotherhood to the French, as they 
" applauded and approved the rejolution of forming ano- 
" ther general convention " on the 24th of April 1 794, 
after the difperfion of the Scotch Convention in Decem- 
ber 1793. After reading Hoche's Inftrudllons, will they 
write again to the London Correfponding Society — " we 
*' read — v/e blufhed — we took courage — we did more ; 
" for we refolved on re-aflembling." If fo they do, it is 
to be hoped that they will do it for the purpofe of making 
public atonement to their fellow-townfmen for their paft 
condufl ; for they can no longer fay " ^tis a nohle—^^tis 
" a virtuous — '//j a god-like and irnmortal caufe -— in 
*' which we are now mutually embarked." — (Appen- 
dix H.) 

The inftruflions proceed : " The expedition under 
" Colonel Tate has in view three principal objc6ls ; the 
" firft is, if poflible, to raifc an iiifurreclion in the coun- 
" try ; the fecond is, to interrupt and cmharrafs the 
^' cojrwierce of the enemy ; and the third, to prepare and 
" facilitate the way for a dcfcent, by diftracli.ng the atten- 
*' tion cf the En^lifli government. 

" In 



[ 43 ] 

*^ 111 all countries the poor are the chifs moft prone ta 
" infurreilion ; <7W.'/ this difpof:tion is to he cherijhcd by 
" difiribiiting money and drink -^ by invkighikg againji 
" the government^ AS the cause of the public dis- 
*' tress; by recommending and facilitating a riung;, to 
" plunder the public ftores and magazines, and the pro- 
** perty of the rich, v/hofe affluence is the natural fubjefl: 
" of envy to the poor." By fuch means " numbers of 
" artizans and workmen, of vagabonds and idlers, and 
" even malefaftors," were to be attracted and "formed 
" into new companies under the command of French 

* officers." 

" The commerce of the enemy in the country is to be 

* interrupted by breaking down bridges, cutting ofF dykes, 
" and ruining caufeways, which is, at the fame time, 
" efTentially necefTary for the prefervatlon of the army ; by 
** plundering all convoys of fubfiftence, the public flage» 
" and waggons, and even private carriages ; the cutting 
•* oiF the fupplies of provifions from the principal towns, 
" burning all veflcls and boats in the rivers and canals, 
*' deftroying magazines, fetting fire to decks and coal- 
*' yards, rope-walks, great manufaclorie?, &c. &c. It 
*' is to be obferved likewife, that by thefe mean: a crcivd 
" of artizans ivill be throivn out of employ., and of courfc 
" be ready to embark in any meafure which holds out to 
" them fubfiftence and plunder without labour or fatigue.'' 
To be fure, the poor, the workmen, and artizans, art 
here held out as a moft profligate race ; but Hoche, it is to 
be remembered, fpeaks from the example of France, whcr:: 
the deftru61ion of manufacturing tov/ns was lo.'.nked upon 
as a means of recruiting the Jacobin ranks. Secret focie- 
ties had prepared them for fuch horrid deeds in France j 
and Sheffield, Birmingham, and Manchefter, . appear to 

have 



[ 46 J 

hive bocn the firft objects of the patriotic labours 6f the 
fecret focietics in England. 

" Subfiftencc is to be fcized wherever it can be found j 
*' if any town or village refufe to fupply it at the moment^ 
*' it is to he given up to immediate pillage ; your foldicrs 
*' are to carry with them nothing but their arms : they 
" will find every luhere clothes^ linen, and Jhoes ; th© 
" inhabitants miijl fupply your wants, and the feats of the 
" gentry are to be your magazines. Wherever the legion, 
" or any of its columns, is ported, if the neighbouring 
" Y^zviih^s, do not give injlant notice of th: approach of th& 
" enemy by ringing bells, or otherwife, they are to he 
" given up TO FIRE AND SWORD. 

" With boldnefs and intelligence combined, you may 
" eafily poflefs yourfelf of Chc/Jer or Liverpool^ which 
" you Will ruin hy burning the magazines, and filling up 
" the ports, oratleaft you will cut off all communication 
" between thofe cities and the interior. — In order to 
" fpread the confternation and aftonifliment as widely as 
" poffible, after the deftruitiou of Liverpool, (for this 
" point is capital,) you muft follow your blow, and feizc 
" upon fome Imall town or fea-port on that coaft, which 
" you v/ill lay under contribution." Was it (I would 
rfk) to prepare the tov.-n of Liverpool for fuch a fate that 
fo early as 1792 fome of its inhabitants entered into a direft 
correfpondence with the London focieties that were at that 
time addrefllng the Jacobins of Paris and hailing them as 
brothers P Did they then conceive, that within the fpace 
of fix years an addiefs would be fent to invite thofe Jaco- 
bins into England, bearing fuch inftru£lions as are now 
laid before the render ? — During this time Hoche, in per- 
fori, was fuppofcd to be in Ireland ; and my reader may 
cafily conceive, by thefe inft; u6lions, the horrors that he 

would 



[ 47 ] 

would have committed himfelf, had he fucceeded in his at- 
tempt at Bantry-Bay. Two other French parties were 
to have been a(Sling in concert with Tate, in all probabili- 
ty with fimilar inftru£lions, in Yorkfliirc, Durham, airJ 
Northumberland i and without doubt thcfe parties, if fuc- 
cefsful, would have as radically reformed the conftitution 
as could have been dcfired by that aflbciation at Ncivcajllc- 
jipon-Tyne^ which wrote, on the 24th of April, 1 794, to 
inform the London Correfponding Society how cunningly 
they met every wec/c, "admitting none but knotun friends-, 
" and afl'uming no name- but that of newspaper-com- 
" PANIES." News indeed ! their town burnt, their port 
deftroyed — Great news — bloody news for the friends. 
Should they, however, not have been the fixft objedl of 
the rapacity of the implacable enemy, and, learning by 
the example of Briftol, have conceived hopes of prefer- 
ving their town, by petitioning his Majefty for a military 
force, would they (I make bold toafic) patriotically finifh 
their petition, by " Farev/ell, hoping the hydra of 
" TYRANNY AND IMPOSITION fliall foon fall under the 

" GUILLOTINE OF TRUTH AND REASON ! !" Let them 

learn before it is too late. — (Appendix H, p. i2r.j 

In February laft, the united Eritifh were fwearing-ia 
profclytes in the Borough ; and thefe feducers would have 
continued their feditious practices, had they nat been piit 
to flight by the magiftrates of Union-hall; and John 
Cormiclc, in his declaration of July, 1798, flatcd, that 
" he knows there is an agent for the United BritiOi refi- 
" dent in Paris, and that there are agents both for the 
" United BrLtifti and Irifh refident at Hamburg." — {Irifh 
Jp, No. XXX II.)— Th\x% zxQ we led to July, 1798, by 
authentic documents, which will be more than enough to 
convince the muf^ obftinatc fceptick, that this confpirirg 

Sea 



C 4S ] 

Sect is ever active and vigilant to betray its country- 
men into the hands of the moft implacable of enemies. 

Would to God that every Englifliman would re- 
fle£l on the proceedings of Secret Societies! how clear- 
ly might he perceive their twofold cbjedl — of overturn- 
ing a conftitution that has led England to the fummit of 
glory and profperitv ; and of creeling a power, on blood- 
fhed, rapine, and theneglevSl: of every fecial duty. On the 
one fide, we fee the Rights of man, Equality and Liberty, 
fet forth by thefe infidious teachers, to prove to the induf- 
trious labourer and unwary artizan, that it is a breach of 
their rights to fee the inhabitants of the earth diftinoruifhed 
into claffes fubordinate to different ranks and fubjecS: to 
Superiors ; that v/ere thefe diftindlions of monopolizers 
once broken, the people v/ould then be repoffefred of their 
imprefcriptible rights ; that tyrannical laws would no 
longer reprefs the glorious ze^l for the welfare of man- 
kind, and defpotically condemn thofe real patriots,, the 
fiiends of man and the defenders of their rights. The 
exifting governments are reprefented as an infringement of 
the rights cf the people ; the magiftrates and military as 
agents of defpotifm; the clergy as impoftors. On the 
other fide, to cftablifh the rebellious power of the Secret 
Societie?, any number of perfons being rendered difcon- 
ted by hearing the perpetual declamations of thefe political 
libertines^ an oath of fecrecy and union is tendered to 
them; their curiofity and enthufiafm is next v/orked upon 
by the hopes of fecrets of high importance ; they make 
profelytes ; their afiemblies focn become too numerous ; it 
is hinted that it would be dangerous, under the exifting 
circumftances, to meet in fuch numbers ; it is propofed 
and agreed that they fhould divide, by tens for example; 
that, in order to eftablifh a fort of fubordination, each 

fcciety 



r .49 ] 

fociety fhould choofe a delegate ; then the ten delegates 
depute one of theirs to a higher degree; fofrom degree to 
decree we rife to the Grand and Regulating Committei^ 
One would think they had forgotten their declamations 
againft rank and Superiors. The leaft breach of fccrccy 
is to be punirtied by poifon or the dagger. Difjbediencu 
is feverely punifhcd ; and when we look to tlie Jacobin 
eath we find that neither Father^ Mother^ FriittdjRe/atioti, 
nor even Mijircfs-, arc to be fpared, when the good of the 
caufe is in queftion. Is it that a few rebels, ftyling them- 
selves a Secret Committee, may in conjunflion with the 
moft inveterate enemies of thefe kingdoms plunder and 
defpoil their fellow-countrymen, that EngliQimen will 
hearken to thefe feducers ? Shall a few frantic Jacobin?, 
bccaufe they arc arrived at the fummit of the pyramid, 
there to receive the loathfome fumes of blafphemy and re-- 
bellion, lord it over a nation that can boaft of a Sovereign 
whofe virtues and paternal affediion have rather made him 
the father than the ruler of the nation ; — of a Houfe of 
Lords, defcribed even by the Jacobin Lacroix, " as preci- 
" ous to the nation, becaufe it is a rampart of its liber- 
" ties," — of a Houfe of Commons ever watchful of tha 
real rights of the people, in fpite of the declamations of 
the Brotherhood to reprefcnt it as the contrary;* over a 

nation 

* Few people would fufneift, tliat tli€ debates in Parliament could ever 
he converted into a tool for tl:e prop^atlon of the views of the Corre- 
sponding Society. Tlie following letter, however, %vill (how how care- 
fully our anceftors had forefeen every danger, when thty ordained that 
the debates fhould not be publifhed ; it wiUalfo fsrve to explain the ^'^llc- 
mence of many, on the occafion of the recent clearing of the galleries and 
bar during certain dcbatcb of higli and ticklifli importance, fuch, for ex- 
ample, as the Irifh buiinefs. This letter from the London Correfponding 
Society (Appendix E. March 4, 1793)1$ written to a fociety at Sheffield; 
'* With rsgard ttf petitioning Parliament, we are unanirx)u« in the opi« 

4 "' a^if, 



r 50 J 

■atlon, in Ihort, that can boaft of Laws which, formed by 
the mutual confent of King, Lords, and Commons, have 
led it to unparalleled glory, profperity, and riches ? Is it to 
men who have been feated on juries, who have attended 
the public courts of juftice, that thefe feducers fhall hold 
forth on the mal-adminiflration of juftice ? Shall a loyal 
army and victorious navy be reprefented as the agents of 
dtfpotifmand tyranny, becaufe they will not murder their 
officers and defert to the enemy? — No, Englifhmenj 
fuch efforts fliall ever meet with the contempt they de- 
ferve ; union, honefty, and loyalty, fhall lead us to vic- 
tory ; and, ever mindful of our duties to God and man, 
we may bid defiance to the malignity of our internal, and 
the rapacity of our external foes. 

So be it ! 

•• nion, that fuch a petition will not prodnce a reform ; yet, from many 
** confiderations, we are now perfuadcd, that if every fociety in the ifland 
** would fend forward a petition, we fhould ultimately gairi ground ; for as 
" much as it luMl force the prcfcnt memben of the JemU repeatedly to difcuji 
*' the fubjetf'^ and their ddlbcratkm, printed In the different neiufpaper:, will 
*' moft naturally awaken the public mind to^vjrds the cbjcii of ozir purfuU y 
*' the nation once infoimed that a reform in pirliament is fought for Irom 
•' ditfertnc quarters, gives rife to debates in tlie Houfeof Commons, and 
•• is acknc'.vledgi-d by every rank to be wanting, luill begin to exercije in 
•' men reafon on the fubjedl (probably, as we have feen the five or fix me* 
ifhanics of Sheffield doing}. " Arrived at that period, wc prcfume tliat 
*« our bufmefs will be nearly accompli/hcd." ,